Archive for the ‘Windows XP’ Category

Robust File and Folder Copy.

By default Robocopy will only copy a file if the source and destination have different time stamps or different file sizes.

 

Syntax

ROBOCOPY Source_folder Destination_folder [files_to_copy] [options]

 

Key

file(s)_to_copy : A list of files or a wildcard.

(defaults to copying *.*)

 

  Source options

/S : Copy Subfolders.

/E : Copy Subfolders, including Empty Subfolders.

/COPY:copyflag[s] : What to COPY (default is /COPY:DAT)

(copyflags : D=Data, A=Attributes, T=Timestamps

S=Security=NTFS ACLs, O=Owner info, U=aUditing info).

/SEC : Copy files with SECurity (equivalent to /COPY:DATS).

/DCOPY:T : Copy Directory Timestamps. ##

/COPYALL : Copy ALL file info (equivalent to /COPY:DATSOU).

/NOCOPY : Copy NO file info (useful with /PURGE).

 

/A : Copy only files with the Archive attribute set.

/M : like /A, but remove Archive attribute from source files.

/LEV:n : Only copy the top n LEVels of the source tree.

 

/MAXAGE:n : MAXimum file AGE – exclude files older than n days/date.

/MINAGE:n : MINimum file AGE – exclude files newer than n days/date.

(If n < 1900 then n = no of days, else n = YYYYMMDD date).

 

/FFT : Assume FAT File Times (2-second date/time granularity).

/256 : Turn off very long path (> 256 characters) support.

 

Copy options

/L : List only – don’t copy, timestamp or delete any files.

/MOV : MOVe files (delete from source after copying).

/MOVE : Move files and dirs (delete from source after copying).

 

/Z : Copy files in restartable mode (survive network glitch).

/B : Copy files in Backup mode.

/ZB : Use restartable mode; if access denied use Backup mode.

/IPG:n : Inter-Packet Gap (ms), to free bandwidth on slow lines.

 

/R:n : Number of Retries on failed copies – default is 1 million.

/W:n : Wait time between retries – default is 30 seconds.

/REG : Save /R:n and /W:n in the Registry as default settings.

/TBD : Wait for sharenames To Be Defined (retry error 67).

 

Destination options

 

/A+:[RASHCNET] : Set file Attribute(s) on destination files + add.

/A-:[RASHCNET] : UnSet file Attribute(s) on destination files – remove.

/FAT: Create destination files using 8.3 FAT file names only.

 

/CREATE: CREATE directory tree structure + zero-length files only.

/DST: Compensate for one-hour DST time differences ##

/PURGE: Delete dest files/folders that no longer exist in source.

/MIR: MIRror a directory tree – equivalent to /PURGE plus all subfolders (/E)

 

Logging options

/L: List only – don’t copy, timestamp or delete any files.

/NP: No Progress – don’t display % copied.

/LOG:file : Output status to LOG file (overwrite existing log).

/UNILOG:file : Output status to Unicode Log file (overwrite) ##

/LOG+:file : Output status to LOG file (append to existing log).

/UNILOG+:file : Output status to Unicode Log file (append) ##

/TS : Include Source file Time Stamps in the output.

/FP : Include Full Pathname of files in the output.

/NS : No Size – don’t log file sizes.

/NC : No Class – don’t log file classes.

/NFL : No File List – don’t log file names.

/NDL : No Directory List – don’t log directory names.

/TEE : Output to console window, as well as the log file.

/NJH : No Job Header.

/NJS : No Job Summary.

 

 Repeated Copy Options

/MON:n : MONitor source; run again when more than n changes seen.

/MOT:m : MOnitor source; run again in m minutes Time, if changed.

 

/RH:hhmm-hhmm : Run Hours – times when new copies may be started.

/PF : Check run hours on a Per File (not per pass) basis.

 

 Job Options

/JOB:jobname : Take parameters from the named JOB file.

/SAVE:jobname : SAVE parameters to the named job file

/QUIT : QUIT after processing command line (to view parameters).

/NOSD : NO Source Directory is specified.

/NODD : NO Destination Directory is specified.

/IF : Include the following Files.

 

Advanced options you’ll probably never use

/EFSRAW : Copy any encrypted files using EFS RAW mode. ##

/MT[:n] : Multithreaded copying, n = no. of threads to use (1-128) ###

default = 8 threads, not compatible with /IPG and /EFSRAW

The use of /LOG is recommended for better performance.

 

/SECFIX : FIX file SECurity on all files, even skipped files.

/TIMFIX : FIX file TIMes on all files, even skipped files.

 

/XO : eXclude Older – if destination file exists and is the same date or newer than the source – don’t bother to overwrite it.

/XC | /XN : eXclude Changed | Newer files

/XL : eXclude “Lonely” files and dirs (present in source but not destination)

This will prevent any new files being added to the destination.

/XX : eXclude “eXtra” files and dirs (present in destination but not source)

This will prevent any deletions from the destination. (this is the default)

 

/XF file [file]… : eXclude Files matching given names/paths/wildcards.

/XD dirs [dirs]… : eXclude Directories matching given names/paths.

XF and XD can be used in combination  e.g.

ROBOCOPY c:\source d:\dest /XF *.doc *.xls /XD c:\unwanted /S

 

/IA:[RASHCNETO] : Include files with any of the given Attributes

/XA:[RASHCNETO] : eXclude files with any of the given Attributes

/IS : Include Same, overwrite files even if they are already the same.

/IT : Include Tweaked files.

/XJ : eXclude Junction points. (normally included by default).

 

/MAX:n : MAXimum file size – exclude files bigger than n bytes.

/MIN:n : MINimum file size – exclude files smaller than n bytes.

/MAXLAD:n : MAXimum Last Access Date – exclude files unused since n.

/MINLAD:n : MINimum Last Access Date – exclude files used since n.

(If n < 1900 then n = n days, else n = YYYYMMDD date).

 

/BYTES : Print sizes as bytes.

/X : Report all eXtra files, not just those selected & copied.

/V : Produce Verbose output log, showing skipped files.

/ETA : Show Estimated Time of Arrival of copied files.

## = New Option in Vista (XP027) all other options are valid for the XP version of Robocopy (XP010)

### = New Option in Windows 7 and Windows 2008 R2

 

Robocopy EXIT CODES

 

File Attributes [RASHCNETO]

 

R – Read only

A – Archive

S – System

H – Hidden

C – Compressed

N – Not content indexed

E – Encrypted

T – Temporary

O – Offline

If either the source or desination are a “quoted long foldername” do not include a trailing backslash as this will be treated as an escape character, i.e. “C:\some path\” will fail but “C:\some path\\” or “C:\some path\.” or “C:\some path” will work.

 

By copying only the files that have changed, robocopy can be used to backup very large volumes.

 

ROBOCOPY will accept UNC pathnames including UNC pathnames over 256 characters long.

 

/REG Writes to the registry at HKCU\Software\Microsoft\ResKit\Robocopy

 

/XX (exclude extra) If used in conjunction with /Purge or /Mir, this switch will take precedence and prevent any files being deleted from the destination.

 

To limit the network bandwidth used by robocopy, specify the Inter-Packet Gap parameter /IPG:n

This will send packets of 64 KB each followed by a delay of n Milliseconds.

 

Open Files

 

Robocopy will fail to copy files that are locked by other users or applications, so limiting the number of retries with /R:0 will speed up copying by skipping any in-use files. The Windows Volume Shadow Copy service is the only Windows subsystem that can copy open files. Robocopy does not use the Volume Shadow Copy service, but it can backup a volume shadow that has already been created with VSHADOW or DISKSHADOW.

 

Permissions

 

All versions of Robocopy will copy security information (ACLs) for directories, version XP010 will not copy file security changes unless the file itself has also changed, this greatly improves performance.

 

/B (backup mode) will allow Robocopy to override file and folder permission settings (ACLs).

 

ERROR 5 (0x00000005) Changing File Attributes … Access is denied

This error usually means that File/Folder permissions or Share permissions on either the source or the destination are preventing the copy, either change the permissions or run the command in backup mode with /B.

 

To run ROBOCOPY under a non-administrator account will require backup files privilege, to copy security information auditing privilege is also required, plus of course you need at least read access to the files and folders.

 

Availability

 

Robocopy is a standard command in Windows 7 and above. The Windows Server 2003 Resource Kit Tools include Robocopy XP010, which can be run on NT 4/ Windows 2000. Robocopy does not run on Windows 95, or NT 3.5. (RoboCopy is a Unicode application).

 

Robocopy ‘Jobs’ and the ‘MOnitor source’ option provide an alternative to setting up a Scheduled Task to run a batchfile with a RoboCopy command.

 

Examples:

 

Copy files from one server to another including subfolders (/S)

If this command is run repeatedly it will skip any files already in the destination, however it is not a true mirror as any files deleted from the source will remain in the destination.

 

ROBOCOPY \\Server1\reports \\Server2\backup *.doc /S

List files over 32 MBytes in size:

 

ROBOCOPY C:\work /MAX:33554432 /L

Move files over 14 days old: (note the MOVE option will fail if any files are open and locked.)

 

ROBOCOPY C:\work C:\destination /move /minage:14

Backup a Server:

The script below copies data from FileServ1 to FileServ2, the destination holds a full mirror along with file security info. When run regularly to synchronize the source and destination, robocopy will only copy those files that have changed (change in time stamp or size.)

 

@ECHO OFF

SETLOCAL

 

SET _source=\\FileServ1\e$\users

 

SET _dest=\\FileServ2\e$\BackupUsers

 

SET _what=/COPYALL /B /SEC /MIR

:: /COPYALL :: COPY ALL file info

:: /B :: copy files in Backup mode.

:: /SEC :: copy files with SECurity

:: /MIR :: MIRror a directory tree

 

SET _options=/R:0 /W:0 /LOG:MyLogfile.txt /NFL /NDL

:: /R:n :: number of Retries

:: /W:n :: Wait time between retries

:: /LOG :: Output log file

:: /NFL :: No file logging

:: /NDL :: No dir logging

 

ROBOCOPY %_source% %_dest% %_what% %_options%

 

Run two robocopy jobs at the same time with START /Min

 

Start /Min “Job one” Robocopy \\FileServA\C$\Database1 \\FileServeBackupA\c$\Backups

Start /Min “Job two” Robocopy \\FileServB\C$\Database2 \\FileServeBackupB\c$\Backups

 

 

Related Posts:

Robocopy Error 5

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Issue:

This kind of issue is basically related to Task Scheduler, Normally you observe that the Tasks are not running as scheduled, when you try to check the properties of task, you get this error.

TaskSCerror

When you click “Ok”, you get the Properties of the task, but nothing works even though you make the changes.

Note: Backup all the information related to Logon Credentials used to run the specified tasks.

Resolution:

You need to clear the folder “S-1-5-18”

You can find the folder in the below location:

“C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Microsoft\Crypto\RSA”

RSA Folder

 

S1518

Once you have deleted the folder, you can go back to Tasks and open the task properties, this time you won’t get the error.

Make sure to re-enter the logon credentials used to run the tasks.

Summary:  Group Policy application seems straightforward enough: Group Policy Objects (GPOs) are linked to organizational units (OUs); users and computers are in OUs. All the GPOs from a user’s OU hierarchy filter down to the user.

Things get more complicated, though, when you remember that GPOs can be linked to a domain and to sites—meaning you’ll have to open a whole new console to see what’s going on. You also have to consider local security policies, which exist solely on the client computer and are applied before any domain-based policies arrive. Throw in options such as Block Policy Inheritance, No Override, and loopback processing, and it’s no wonder why there’s such a robust market for third-party GPO tools. However, with some patience and a methodology, you can do quite a bit of quality troubleshooting on your own.

Start from the Scratch

Too many administrators try to start at the top, working their way down the hierarchy of GPOs and figuring out which ones apply. That method is time-consuming, error-prone, and just plain boring. It’s a lot easier to start at the bottom—the client—and work your way up the tree. Windows XP’s Gpresult tool, for example, is a great troubleshooting tool. Run from the command line, it will tell you which groups the current user is a member of (which can affect GPO application), and give you a list of every GPO that is currently affecting the user. You’ll also see the last time that GPOs were applied to the computer. What Gpresult is displaying is called resultant set of policy (RSOP). It sorts through all the blocked inheritance, no overrides, and conflicting policies to sort out exactly which policies are being applied.

By default, Gpresult doesn’t show you which individual policies are applied or what they are set to; because GPOs successively overwrite one another as they are applied, you can still be left with a troubleshooting task to figure out which of the GPOs listed is responsible for the settings you’re seeing. Fortunately, Gpresult has a “superverbose” mode, enabled by running

Gpresult /z

This mode not only displays which GPOs have been applied, but lists every single policy that’s enabled in each GPO, allowing you to see which GPO modified which setting, and which GPO finally won out in the end. Figure 36.1 shows a portion of Gpresult’s superverbose output. In this example, the GPO being applied is Local Group Policy, and you can see exactly which registry keys each setting is modifying.

Superverbose mode also breaks down the user and computer policies, allowing you to see every setting that is affecting the current users or their machines.

Here is a quick reference you can use to determine which tools to use to help locate and resolve problems with your AD network.

Q: User unable to access network resources?

Is the network functioning at all? Can you view a list of networked systems or even access resources on other computers? If not, you have network connectivity problems. The troubleshooting tools you should start with include: Event Viewer, Ping, IPCONFIG, NLTEST, NetDiag and Network Monitor.

Q: User unable to locate resources by name?

Is name resolution functioning? Can you resolve NetBIOS or domain names into IP addresses using Windows Explorer or PING? If not, you have name resolution service problems. The troubleshooting tools you should start with include: Event Viewer, NSLOOKUP, NBTSTAT and DNSCMD.

Q: User unable to log in and obtain its roaming profile?

If not, your DC is having problems. The troubleshooting tools you should start with include: Event Viewer, DCDiag, DSASTAT and NTDSUTIL.

Q: User is unable to authenticate?

Can any client log on locally or remotely? If not, your DC is not authenticating properly. The troubleshooting tools you should start with include: Event Viewer and NetSetup.

Q: User unable to access resources as expected?

Can you access objects that you should be granted access to, and are you restricted from objects that you should not have access to? If not, then either the ACLs or DC is not functioning properly. The troubleshooting tools you should start with include: Event Viewer, DSACLS, NETDOM and SDCHECK.

Other Posts related to Active Directory:

https://ignitedsoul.com/2012/07/03/troubleshooting-tools-for-common-active-directory-problems/

https://ignitedsoul.com/2012/06/22/how-the-active-directory-communication-does-happens/

https://ignitedsoul.com/2012/01/23/what-is-the-sysvol-folder/

https://ignitedsoul.com/2012/01/23/replmon/

https://ignitedsoul.com/2011/10/12/how-to-restore-the-system-state-on-a-domain-controller-2/

https://ignitedsoul.com/2011/10/12/how-many-fsmo-roles/

https://ignitedsoul.com/2011/08/10/active-directory-roles/

https://ignitedsoul.com/2011/08/01/intrasite-and-intersite-replication/

https://ignitedsoul.com/2011/07/05/active-directory-intersite-replication/

https://ignitedsoul.com/2011/07/05/support-files-of-active-directory/

https://ignitedsoul.com/2011/03/04/active-directory-naming-and-ldap/

https://ignitedsoul.com/2011/01/05/review-of-active-directory-in-server-2008/

User logon problems are sometimes hard to troubleshoot. Have you checked the Application log on the machine in question? There might be (most likely) some errors in there from source Userenv (ID’s 1053, 1054).
Turning on Userenv debug logging will also help in troubleshooting user logon problems. You can do this by adding a Registry key:

– Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon
– Value: UserEnvDebugLevel
– Value Type: REG_DWORD
– Value Data: 10002 (Hex)

The log will be located in: %systemroot%\debug\usermode\userenv.log.

In the log you will exactly see what happens during logon at what time. If you see a large difference between times you’ll know what part of the logon process is causing the long delay.

A surrogate that focuses on Life Major Web traffic is called a “web proxy”. The most general use of a web surrogate is to perform as a web cache. Most delegate programs specify a means to forbid access to URLs specified in a blacklist, thus providing text filtering. This is over again adapted to in a corporate, pedagogical, or library circumstances, and anywhere else where content filtering is desired. Some trap proxies reformat web pages for a specific deliberateness or audience, such as to go to chamber phones and PDAs.Web Server is an medial server between patient petition and server resource
Content-filtering net surrogate
A content-filtering web substitute server provides administrative direction over the please that may be relayed sometimes non-standard due to the proxy. It is commonly employed in both commercial and non-commercial organizations  to secure that Internet form conforms to tolerable make use of policy. In some cases users can circumvent the delegate, since there are services designed to representative message from a filtered website through a non filtered locality to sanction it through the user’s proxy.

Some proverbial methods acclimated to inasmuch as essence filtering list: URL or DNS blacklists, URL regex filtering, MIME filtering, or peacefulness keyword filtering. Some products comprise been known to employ content dissection techniques to look in the direction of traits commonly old by standard types of content providers.

A content filtering substitute leave often bolstering user authentication, to supervision web access. It also usually produces logs, either to recite full information in all directions the URLs accessed past unequivocal users, or to prefect bandwidth usage statistics. It may also communicate to daemon-based and/or ICAP-based antivirus software to care for insurance against virus and other malware by scanning arriving purport in real hour in advance it enters the network.
Anonymizing proxy server

 

In this section, we’ll discuss the registry keys that are used for power management. You may edit any of them using one of the registry editors.

Note Changing registry entries responsible for power management won’t have an immediate effect. Windows only reads settings from the registry when you log on, when you click OK in Control Panel, or when a Powerprof.dll function is called on to read the registry.

The registry keys used for power management are listed below.

  • HKCU\AppEvents\EventLabels\LowBatteryAlarm – descriptive name of a low battery-power-alarm event
  • HKCU\AppEvents\EventLabels\CriticalBatteryAlarm – descriptive name of a critical battery-power-alarm event
  • HKCU\AppEvents\Schemes\Apps\PowerCfg\LowBatteryAlarm\.Current, HKCU\AppEvents\Schemes\Apps\PowerCfg\LowBatteryAlarm\.Default, HKCU\AppEvents\Schemes\Apps\PowerCfg\CriticalBatteryAlarm\.Current, HKCU\AppEvents\Schemes\Apps\PowerCfg\CriticalBatteryAlarm\.Default – filenames of the WAV files that will play as a low and critical power-alarm events
  • HKCU\Control Panel\PowerCfg\CurrentPowerPolicy – index of current user and machine power policy
  • HKCU\Control Panel\PowerCfg\GlobalPowerPolicy\Policies – the user global power policy (binary encoded data)
  • HKCU\Control Panel\PowerCfg\PowerPolicies\n\Name – name of power scheme n, where n = 0, 1, 2, etc.
  • HKCU\Control Panel\PowerCfg\PowerPolicies\n\Description – descriptive string for power scheme n, where n = 0, 1, 2, etc.
  • HKCU\Control Panel\PowerCfg\PowerPolicies\n\Policies – user power policy n, where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. (binary encoded data)
  • HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Controls Folder\PowerCfg\LastID – index of the last power policy in the lists of user and machine power policies (for example, if there are six user power policies and six machine power policies in the registry, the value of this key is 5)
  • HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Controls Folder\PowerCfg\DiskSpinDownMax – the maximum disk spin-down time that Control Panel will allow the user to set
  • HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Controls Folder\PowerCfg\DiskSpinDownMin – the minimum disk spin-down time that Control Panel will allow the user to set
  • HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Controls Folder\PowerCfg\GlobalPowerPolicy\Policies – the machine global power policy (binary encoded data)
  • HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Controls Folder\PowerCfg\PowerPolicies\n\Policies – machine power policy n, where n = 0, 1, 2, etc. (binary encoded data)


Power management configuration in Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 is based on the concept of power schemes. A power scheme is a group of preset power options that are passed to the Power Policy Manager component of the operating system to control the machine’s power-management behavior.

Each power scheme consists of a global power-policy structure and a power-policy structure.

  • Global power-policy structures contain preset power options that are global across all power schemes.
  • Non-global power-policy structures contain power options that are unique to a particular power scheme.

These power-policy structures are further divided into machine structures and user structures.

  • Values in machine structures are stored in the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE registry key, and none of these values are exposed in the user interface. For example, you can’t set any of these values using the Power Options applet in the Control Panel.
  • Values in user structures are stored in the HKEY_CURRENT_USER registry key and some of these values are displayed in the user interface. Some of these parameters can be set using the Power Options applet in Control Panel.

The data structures defining power management policy are listed below:

  • GLOBAL_POWER_POLICY – used to manage global power policies. This structure contains the data common to all power schemes. This structure is a container for a GLOBAL_USER_POWER_POLICY structure and a GLOBAL_MACHINE_POWER_POLICY structure, which contains elements that are read from and written to the registry.
  • GLOBAL_MACHINE_POWER_POLICY – this structure is a part of the GLOBAL_POWER_POLICY structure. It contains the data common to all power schemes and users. The elements in this structure are read from and written to the HKLM key in the registry.
  • GLOBAL_USER_POWER_POLICY – this structure is a part of the GLOBAL_POWER_POLICY structure. It contains the data common to all power schemes for the user. The elements in this structure are read from and written to the HKCU key in the registry.
  • POWER_POLICY – used to manage non-global power policies. This structure contains the data unique for all power schemes. This structure is a container for the USER_POWER_POLICY and MACHINE_POWER_POLICY structures that contain the elements to be read from and written to the registry. There is one POWER_POLICY structure for each power scheme on a machine.
  • MACHINE_POWER_POLICY – this structure is a part of the POWER_POLICY structure. It contains the data unique to each power scheme, but common to all users. The elements in this structure are read from and written to the HKLM key in the registry.
  • USER_POWER_POLICY – this structure is a part of the POWER_POLICY structure. It contains the data unique to each user and power scheme. The elements in this structure are read from and written to the HKCU key in the registry.
Released: 2007-11-08
Version: 3.00
Compatibility: Microsoft Windows 2000, Microsoft Windows XP, Microsoft Windows Vista, Microsoft Windows Vista Ultimate (64-bit), Microsoft Windows Vista Home Premium (64-bit), Microsoft Windows Vista Business (64-bit), Microsoft Windows Vista Home Basic (64-bit), Microsoft Windows Vista (64-bit), Microsoft Windows Vista Ultimate (32-bit), Microsoft Windows Vista Enterprise (32-bit), Microsoft Windows Vista Business (32-bit), Microsoft Windows Vista Home Premium (32-bit), Microsoft Windows Vista Home Basic (32-bit), Microsoft Windows Vista Enterprise (64-bit), Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Microsoft Windows XP Professional, Microsoft Windows XP Media Center, Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition, Microsoft Windows XP Tablet PC Edition
System requirements: Operating Systems
Microsoft Windows 2000
Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition
Microsoft Windows XP Media Center Edition
Microsoft Windows XP Professional
Microsoft Windows XP Tablet PC Edition
Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition
Microsoft Windows Vista Enterprise 32 Edition
Microsoft Windows Vista Home Basic 32 Edition
Microsoft Windows Vista Home Premium 32 Edition
Microsoft Windows Vista Business 32 Edition
Microsoft Windows Vista Ultimate 32 Edition
Microsoft Windows Vista Enterprise 64 Edition
Microsoft Windows Vista Home Basic 64 Edition
Microsoft Windows Vista Home Premium 64 Edition
Microsoft Windows Vista Business 64 Edition
Microsoft Windows Vista Ultimate 64 Edition

 

Download Here

WINDOWS XP HIDDEN APPS

To run any of these apps go to Start > Run and type the executable name (ie charmap).

=========================================

1) Character Map = charmap.exe (very useful for finding unusual characters)

2) Disk Cleanup = cleanmgr.exe

3) Clipboard Viewer = clipbrd.exe (views contents of Windows clipboard)

4) Dr Watson = drwtsn32.exe (Troubleshooting tool)

5) DirectX diagnosis = dxdiag.exe (Diagnose & test DirectX, video & sound cards)

6) Private character editor = eudcedit.exe (allows creation or modification of characters)

7) IExpress Wizard = iexpress.exe (Create self-extracting / self-installing package)

8) Microsoft Synchronization Manager = mobsync.exe (appears to allow synchronization of files on the network for when working offline. Apparently undocumented).

9) Windows Media Player 5.1 = mplay32.exe (Retro version of Media Player, very basic).

10) ODBC Data Source Administrator = odbcad32.exe (something to do with databases)

11) Object Packager = packager.exe (to do with packaging objects for insertion in files, appears to have comprehensive help files).

12) System Monitor = perfmon.exe (very useful, highly configurable tool, tells you everything you ever wanted to know about any aspect of PC performance, for uber-geeks only )

13) Program Manager = progman.exe (Legacy Windows 3.x desktop shell).

14) Remote Access phone book = rasphone.exe (documentation is virtually non-existant).

15) Registry Editor = regedt32.exe [also regedit.exe] (for hacking the Windows Registry).

16) Network shared folder wizard = shrpubw.exe (creates shared folders on network).

17) File siganture verification tool = sigverif.exe

18) Volume Contro = sndvol32.exe (I’ve included this for those people that lose it from the System Notification area).

19) System Configuration Editor = sysedit.exe (modify System.ini & Win.ini just like in Win98! ).

20) Syskey = syskey.exe (Secures XP Account database – use with care, it’s virtually undocumented but it appears to encrypt all passwords, I’m not sure of the full implications).

21) Microsoft Telnet Client = telnet.exe

22) Driver Verifier Manager = verifier.exe (seems to be a utility for monitoring the actions of drivers, might be useful for people having driver problems. Undocumented).

23) Windows for Workgroups Chat = winchat.exe (appears to be an old NT utility to allow chat sessions over a LAN, help files available).

24) System configuration = msconfig.exe (can use to control starup programs)

25) gpedit.msc used to manage group policies, and permissions