Archive for the ‘Internet’ Category

Before delving into VoIP configurations, a brief introduction with terminology is necessary:

 

  • Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) —PSTN is the world’s collection of interconnected public voice telephone networks. It is also known as the Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS). It is set up and managed by the government and commercial organizations. It has evolved from the early days of Alexander Graham Bell to mostly digital, circuit-switched telephone network.
  • Private branch exchange (PBX) —This is a device located within an organization that routes telephone calls to internal extensions or to the PSTN. It provides additional features such as voicemail and call-forwarding. A PBX is less expensive than connecting an external line to every telephone. Numbers within the PBX (internal numbers) can be dialed using the last few numbers of the entire phone number and without going through the PSTN. A PBX usually has more than 125 ports.
  • Key telephone system —This is used like a PBX in small offices where far fewer phones are required. Each key telephone system supports up to a hundred ports.
  • Software IP phones —These consist of a headset that plugs into the USB or serial interface of a PC. The PC needs client software that supports IP telephony.
  • Hardware IP phones —These look like regular telephone sets, but they are plugged into a LAN switch. Most IP phones get power from the switch (power over Ethernet or PoE) and encapsulate voice data into IP frames for transmission over the LAN.
  • H.323—This was approved by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) in 1996 as a standard for multimedia and audiovisual transmission across disparate networks. In 1998, it was followed by version 2. It also includes several functions such as bandwidth management, call control, multimedia management, and interoperability between different network types. H.323 has come to be the most popular protocol for VoIP.
  • Session initiation protocol (SIP)—SIP is IETF’s standard for multimedia communication over IP networks. It is an application-layer control protocol that initiates, manages, and terminates calls between two or more terminals. It is picking up as an alternative to H.323.

An anonymous proxy server (from time to time called a trap factor) mainly attempts to anonymize trap surfing. There are discrete varieties of anonymizers. One of the more routine variations is the bare proxy. Because they are typically difficult to track, introduce proxies are principally profitable to those seeking online anonymity, from governmental dissidents to computer criminals. Some users are essentially interested in anonymity for added security, hiding their identities from potentially malicious websites appropriate for illustration, or on grounds, to further constitutional charitable rights of naturalness of philippic, instead of instance. The server receives requests from the anonymizing representative server, and thus does not profit information forth the intent purchaser’s address. Though, the requests are not anonymous to the anonymizing proxy server, and so a rank of conviction is today between the proxy server and the user. Many of them are funded through a continued advertising link to the user.

Access hold sway over: Some proxy servers implement a logon requirement. In large organizations, authorized users obligated to log on to attain access to the web. The organization can thereby track usage to individuals.

Some anonymizing surrogate servers may forward figures packets with header lines such as HTTP_VIA, HTTP_X_FORWARDED_ALSO IN BEHALF OF, or HTTP_FORWARDED, which may reveal the IP address of the client. Other anonymizing delegate servers, known as elite or ear-splitting anonymity proxies, but number the SLIGHT_ADDR header with the IP address of the agent server, making it show that the delegate server is the client. A website could quiescent be suspicious of a proxy is being toughened if the client sends packets which encompass a cookie from a antecedent to by that did not put to use the high anonymity surrogate server. Clearing cookies, and by any chance the cache, would solve this problem.

 

A surrogate that focuses on Life Major Web traffic is called a “web proxy”. The most general use of a web surrogate is to perform as a web cache. Most delegate programs specify a means to forbid access to URLs specified in a blacklist, thus providing text filtering. This is over again adapted to in a corporate, pedagogical, or library circumstances, and anywhere else where content filtering is desired. Some trap proxies reformat web pages for a specific deliberateness or audience, such as to go to chamber phones and PDAs.Web Server is an medial server between patient petition and server resource
Content-filtering net surrogate
A content-filtering web substitute server provides administrative direction over the please that may be relayed sometimes non-standard due to the proxy. It is commonly employed in both commercial and non-commercial organizations  to secure that Internet form conforms to tolerable make use of policy. In some cases users can circumvent the delegate, since there are services designed to representative message from a filtered website through a non filtered locality to sanction it through the user’s proxy.

Some proverbial methods acclimated to inasmuch as essence filtering list: URL or DNS blacklists, URL regex filtering, MIME filtering, or peacefulness keyword filtering. Some products comprise been known to employ content dissection techniques to look in the direction of traits commonly old by standard types of content providers.

A content filtering substitute leave often bolstering user authentication, to supervision web access. It also usually produces logs, either to recite full information in all directions the URLs accessed past unequivocal users, or to prefect bandwidth usage statistics. It may also communicate to daemon-based and/or ICAP-based antivirus software to care for insurance against virus and other malware by scanning arriving purport in real hour in advance it enters the network.
Anonymizing proxy server

 


Here are some tips to ensure malware is not given access to your computer:

• Keep your computer up to date.

• Keep your browser up to date.

• Install good antimalware.

• Download free software only from sites you know and trust.

• Avoid clicking links inside pop-up windows.

• If you are offered antimalware programs while browsing, don’t install them. Stick with the software I outline in this handbook.

By following these rules, you’ll protect yourself and decrease the chances of getting malware on your system. The rest of this handbook will show you how to apply the first three tips listed above.

Malware – The generic term used for all forms of software designed with malicious intent. Viruses, worms, spyware etc. are all forms of malware. The term virus is often used when malware should really be used as it describes all forms of malicious software.

Virus – A computer virus acts very much like a human virus. Human viruses are spread, via thumb drives, floppy discs, network connections etc., to other PCs. Viruses need a host (like a free screensaver program) to spread. By pure definition: a virus has the ability to spread itself, via a host, to other computers.

Worm – A worm is much like a virus. The key difference is worms can spread between PCs without a host (free screensaver program, downloaded game etc.) These programsrely on computer networks and usually damage files and slow down networks in their path.

Trojan horse (Trojan) – A Trojan horse is a seemingly harmless program that looks to provide value. However, just as in Greek mythology, a Trojan horse has a secret agenda and acts as a backdoor to your computer. This backdoor can be accessed by a hacker to compromise your PC. Trojan horses are not self-replicating and spread due to users installing them manually on their PC.

Privacy-invasive software – A formal term used to describe software that invades your privacy. This software comes in different forms including spyware and adware.

Spyware – Spyware tracks a user’s activity by monitoring browsing habits and keyboard activity and can even take screenshots while you use your PC. This information is sent back to the creator or beneficiary of the spyware. Signs of spyware include: modified browser homepages, slow internet, and suspicious looking sites in place of legitimate sites (for example: banking sites.)

Adware – Like spyware, adware is software that may track visited websites and act as a key logger. Adware tracks this information to automatically display downloaded or installed adverts to a user. You may wonder why you are being offered “PC Super Anti Spyware 2011” when using your PC; this is adware at work. AIM, FlashGet, Deamon Tools, and RealPlayer are all examples of adware.

Backdoor – A backdoor is a point of access to a computer that does not require authentication. An unlocked house back door gives access to an otherwise secure home; a computer backdoor allows access to your PC without your knowledge or permission.

Key logger – Key loggers are used to monitor keyboard activity on a PC. These can be software-based (bundled with Trojan horses, adware, and spyware) or hardware-based (between the keyboard cable and the PC, acoustic etc.) Usually this information is retrieved across a local network, the internet, or from the physical device connected to the keyboard.

Firewall – A firewall both permits and blocks access to a network or PC. Firewalls are included with popular security software (e.g. AVG Internet Security and ESET Smart Security) and limit communication between your PC and devices that are not authorized to communicate with you.

Windows Firewall – Comes bundled with Windows XP, Vista, and 7. This is a great solution; however, due to a lack of comprehensive definition updates, Windows Firewall is not completely effective in blocking threats and allowing safe connections.

Antimalware / Antivirus / Antispyware – Software designed to remove or block malware (e.g. AVG Internet Security and ESET Smart Security.)

Fix the problem with seeing them secure sites (banks or online stores) i found this very useful at my work

Make a new notepad file and write in it the following DLL’s. Just copy-paste these

regsvr32 SOFTPUB.DLL

regsvr32 WINTRUST.DLL

regsvr32 INITPKI.DLL

regsvr32 dssenh.dll

regsvr32 Rsaenh.dll

regsvr32 gpkcsp.dll

regsvr32 sccbase.dll

regsvr32 slbcsp.dll

regsvr32 Cryptdlg.dll

And save it as > all file types, and make it something like securefix.bat.

Then just run the file and ur problem should be gone.

P2P file sharing is one of the widely used applications now days. The Torrent search engine is the utility which is

excessively used in this context. As the young generation says “impatience is the new world”, means the generation can’t afford anything too slow, same is the case with torrent download. But there are some tips which can really help to improve your download speed. Let’s have a quick glance at these tips.

1. Choose your ISP wisely: The basic rule is that the maximum Torrent download speed that you can get can’t cross the upper limit of the bandwidth

provided by your ISP. Usually ISP’s specify the upload and download maximum for the connections. So it is always better to have an ISP who provides better Download and Upload limits for an affordable price.

2. Choose the right BitTorrent client: Always choose the latest versions among the available BitTorrent clients. mTorrent, Vuze etc are some of these latest versions available now. The latest versions are equipped with provisions for obtaining the highest download speed and an overall smooth downloading experience.

3. Check the seeds and peers:

A peer is a computer which participates in the P2P sharing either for downloading or uploading. A seed is a computer who has got a complete copy of the file and is sharing that file in the network. A leech is a computer who doesn’t have a complete copy of the file, and is downloading the file at the moment. A leech becomes a seed when it completes the download and shares it over the network. It is always advisable to choose the files with more number of seeds and less no of leeches. That means the file with the highest seed to leech ratio.

4. Altering the firewall configuration: By default the firewalls block all the BitTorrent connections coming through. This can adversely affect the downloading speed. So you must make sure that your firewall is configured in such a way that it allows the BitTorrent connections through it. This can be done by checking the box ‘Add Windows Firewall Exception” in the firewall settings following the path

options/preferences/connection. For ease some users may disable the firewall, but it is strongly advised that you shouldn’t disable your firewall that it will open your computer to serious threats.

5. Limiting your upload rate: A peer to peer sharing is all about simultaneous upload and download. So every BitTorrent clients must upload some data at the same they are downloading some other data through torrent. For obtaining a high download speed you should vary your

upload speed accordingly. Usually the upload maximum by the ISP is very much less than the download maximum. It is only 50Kbps for a 2Mbps connection. For fast downloading you can set your uploading speed to 80% of your maximum uploading speed. You must vary the speed as the download progresses for an efficient downloading. Keep the uploading limit maximum in the beginning and then slightly decrease it as the download progresses. In mTorrent the upload limit can be set from the option Global Upload Rate.

6. Selecting a different port: The default port for the BitTorrent file sharing is one between 6881 and 6999. As BitTorrent sharing involves high bandwidth  usage the ISP’s usually throttle traffic on these ports. So you can increase the downloading speed by selecting some port above 10000. Usually mTorrent randomly assign the port as the application starts. So set a specific port with a number above  10000, by disabling the Randomize port checkbox.

7. Increasing the number of Maximum Half Open TCP Connections: Usually the maximum no of half open TCP connections in Windows XP with SP2 is set as 10 for blocking the virus multiplication. But torrent needs more. To facilitate this a patch TCPIP.sys is available. Through this patch you can set the  maximum no of open TCP connections. Set it to any number between 50 and 100.

8. Protocol encryption: Some ISP’s constrict the bandwidth for P2P sharing. Protocol encryption can be used to override this restriction. Check the Allow incoming legacy connections box and make the outgoing Encryption as Disabled for getting maximum speed on Torrent downloads. Between non-encryption is not advisable as it may lead to some encrypted client to be left as undiscovered.

9. Connections and bandwidth: The BitTorrent client you are using will allow you to enter values for Global maximum no of connections: It is the maximum no of connections BitTorrent client can make for any P2P sharing. Setting

this no to a very high value will take up useless bandwidth, and to a very low value will miss out some peers. For a 256kbps connection you can set this number to 130.

Maximum no of connected peers per torrent: Set this no to one which is closer to the no of available peers for the file.

No of upload slots per torrent: It gives the maximum no of peers to which the BitTorrent client uploads at a time. Since a low settings may affect the download set it to a moderate low value.

10. Miscellaneous: Disable the individual files for download along with a particular file, if we don’t want them at the beginning of download.  Be familiar with your BitTorrent client settings from the users manual or web.

10 ways to speed up Torrent Downloading

Posted: September 30, 2009 in Internet, Torrent
Tags:

P2P file sharing is one of the widely used applications now days. The Torrent search engine is the utility which is excessively used in this context. As the young generation says “impatience is the new world”, means the generation can’t afford anything too slow, same is the case with torrent download. But there are some tips which can really help to improve your download speed. Let’s have a quick glance at these tips.

1. Choose your ISP wisely: The basic rule is that the maximum Torrent download speed that you can get can’t cross the upper limit of the bandwidth provided by your ISP. Usually ISP’s specify the upload and download maximum for the connections. So it is always better to have an ISP who provides better Download and Upload limits for an affordable price.

2. Choose the right BitTorrent client: Always choose the latest versions among the available BitTorrent clients. mTorrent, Vuze etc are some of these latest versions available now. The latest versions are equipped with provisions for obtaining the highest download speed and an overall smooth downloading experience.

3. Check the seeds and peers: A peer is a computer which participates in the P2P sharing either for downloading or uploading. A seed is a computer who has got a complete copy of the file and is sharing that file in the network. A leech is a computer who doesn’t have a complete copy of the file, and is downloading the file at the moment. A leech becomes a seed when it completes the download and shares it over the network. It is always advisable to choose the files with more number of seeds and less no of leeches. That means the file with the highest seed to leech ratio.

4. Altering the firewall configuration: By default the firewalls block all the BitTorrent connections coming through. This can adversely affect the downloading speed. So you must make sure that your firewall is configured in such a way that it allows the BitTorrent connections through it. This can be done by checking the box ‘Add Windows Firewall Exception” in the firewall settings following the path options/preferences/connection. For ease some users may disable the firewall, but it is strongly advised that you shouldn’t disable your firewall that it will open your computer to serious threats.

5. Limiting your upload rate: A peer to peer sharing is all about simultaneous upload and download. So every BitTorrent clients must upload some data at the same they are downloading some other data through torrent. For obtaining a high download speed you should vary your upload speed accordingly. Usually the upload maximum by the ISP is very much less than the download maximum. It is only 50Kbps for a 2Mbps connection. For fast downloading you can set your uploading speed to 80% of your maximum uploading speed. You must vary the speed as the download progresses for an efficient downloading. Keep the uploading limit maximum in the beginning and then slightly decrease it as the download progresses. In mTorrent the upload limit can be set from the option Global Upload Rate.

6. Selecting a different port: The default port for the BitTorrent file sharing is one between 6881 and 6999. As BitTorrent sharing involves high bandwidth usage the ISP’s usually throttle traffic on these ports. So you can increase the downloading speed by selecting some port above 10000. Usually mTorrent randomly assign the port as the application starts. So set a specific port with a number above 10000, by disabling the Randomize port checkbox.

7. Increasing the number of Maximum Half Open TCP Connections: Usually the maximum no of half open TCP connections in Windows XP with SP2 is set as 10 for blocking the virus multiplication. But torrent needs more. To facilitate this a patch TCPIP.sys is available. Through this patch you can set the maximum no of open TCP connections. Set it to any number between 50 and 100.

8. Protocol encryption: Some ISP’s constrict the bandwidth for P2P sharing. Protocol encryption can be used to override this restriction. Check the Allow incoming legacy connections box and make the outgoing Encryption as Disabled for getting maximum speed on Torrent downloads. Between non-encryption is not advisable as it may lead to some encrypted client to be left as undiscovered.

9. Connections and bandwidth: The BitTorrent client you are using will allow you to enter values for Global maximum no of connections: It is the maximum no of connections BitTorrent client can make for any P2P sharing. Setting this no to a very high value will take up useless bandwidth, and to a very low value will miss out some peers. For a 256kbps connection you can set this number to 130. Maximum no of connected peers per torrent: Set this no to one which is closer to the no of available peers for the file. No of upload slots per torrent: It gives the maximum no of peers to which the BitTorrent client uploads at a time. Since a low settings may affect the download set it to a moderate low value.

10. Miscellaneous: Disable the individual files for download along with a particular file, if we don’t want them at the beginning of download. Be familiar with your BitTorrent client settings from the users manual or web.

Bit Torrent Tutorials

Posted: August 20, 2009 in Internet


Bit Torrent Tutorials

The first things you need to know about using Bit Torrent:

— Bit Torrent is aimed at broadband users (or any connection better than dialup).

— Sharing is highly appreciated, and sharing is what keeps bit torrent alive.

— A bit torrent file (*.torrent) contains information about the piece structure of the download (more on this later)

— The method of downloading is not your conventional type of download. Since downloads do not come in as one

big chunk, you are able to download from many people at once, increasing your download speeds. There may be

100 “pieces” to a file, or 20,000+ pieces, all depending on what you’re downloading. Pieces are usually small (under 200kb)

— The speeds are based upon people sharing as they download, and seeders. Seeders are people who constantly

share in order to keep torrents alive. Usually seeders are on fast connections (10mb or higher).

In this tutorial, I will be describing it all using a bit torrent client called Azureus. This client is used to decode the .torrent files into a useable format to download from other peers. From here on out, I will refer to Bit Torrent as BT.

Which BT client you use, is purely up to you. I have tried them all, and my personal favorite is Azureus for many reasons. A big problem with most BT clients out there, is that they are extremely CPU intensive, usually using 100% of your cpu power during the whole process. This is the number one reason I use Azureus. Another, is a recently released plug-in that enables you to browse all current files listed on suprnova.org (the #1 source for torrent downloads).

Before you use the plug-in, take a look at /http://www.suprnova.org, and browse the files. Hold your mouse over the links, and you’ll notice every file ends in .torrent. This is the BT file extension. Usually, .torrent files are very small, under 200kb. They contain a wealth of information about the file you want to download. A .torrent file can contain just 1 single file, or a a directory full of files and more directories. But regardless, every download is split up into hundreds or thousands of pieces. The pieces make it much easier to download at higher speeds. Back to suprnova.org. Look at the columns:

Added | Name | Filesize | Seeds | DLs (and a few more which aren’t very useful.)

I’ll break this down.

Added: Self explanitory, its the date the torrent was added.

Name: Also self explanitory.

Filesize: Duh

Seeds: This is how many people are strictly UPLOADING, or sharing. These people are the ones that keep .torrent files alive. By “alive”, I mean, if there’s no one sharing the .torrent file, no one can download.

DLs: This is how many people currently downloading that particular torrent. They also help keep the torrent alive as they share while they download.

It’s always best to download using a torrent that has a decent amount of seeders and downloaders, this way you can be assured there’s a good chance your download will finish. The more the better.

Now that you should understand how torrent files work, and how to use them, on to Azureus!

First, get JAVA! You need this to run Azureus, as java is what powers it. Get Java here: /http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/download.html

Next, get Azureus at: /http://azureus.sourceforge.net

Next, get the Suprnovalister plugin from /http://s93732957.onlinehome.us/storage/suprnovalister.jar

Install Java JRE before you do ANYTHING.

Install Azureus, and then in the installation folder, create 2 more folders. ./Plugins/suprnovalister (For example, if you installed Azureus to C:\PROGRAM FILES\AZUREUS, create C:\PROGRAM FILES\AZUREUS\PLUGINS\SUPRNOVALISTER). Next, put the suprnovalister.jar file that you downloaded, in that folder.

Load up Azureus, and if you want, go through the settings and personalize it.

The tab labeled “My Torrents” is the section of Azureus you need the most often. That lists all your transfers, uploads and downloads. It shows every bit of information you could possibly want to know about torrents you download.

In the menu bar, go to View > Plugins > Suprnova Lister. This will open up a new tab in Azureus. Click on “Update Mirror”. This will get a mirror site of suprnova.org containing all current torrent files available. Once a mirror is grabbed, choose a category from the drop-down box to the left and click “Update”. Wah-lah, all the available downloads appear in the main chart above. Just double click a download you want, and bang its starting to download. Open the “My Torrents” tab again to view and make sure your download started.

After your download has finished, be nice, and leave the torrent transferring. So people can get pieces of the file from you, just as you got pieces from other people.

Alternatively, if you don’t want to use the plugin… you can just head to suprnova.org and download files to any folder. Then go to File > Open > .torrent File in Azureus.

This should about wrap it up for the Bit Torrent Tutorial. If you guys think of anything I should add, or whatnot, just let me know and I’ll check into it.


Clipboard Hack Problem – Shocking news about CTRL+C

If you are a computer guy you might be a big fan of Ctrl+C, Ctrl+V as me was some times before. But Thanks to GOD, now I am very well aware of the serious drawbacks of this Cut, Copy, Paste. And I do take special precautions while doing this and you also follow the same please. Especially when you are connected to internet, don’t forget mine this article.
Ctrl+C may be the most important work we do everyday. But it’s not a very safe thing to do. What happens when we press Ctrl+C while we are online? We do copy various data by Ctrl+C for pasting elsewhere. This copied data is stored inclipboard and is accessible from the net by a combination of javascripts and php. This is calledclipboard hack problem.

Just try this:
Copy any text by Ctrl+C.
Click on the link Clipboard Hack
You will see the text you copied was accessed by this web page.
Surprised!!!!!
I know you are because at first glance, I was also surprised to see it.

Do not keep sensitive data (like passwords, credit card numbers, PIN etc.) in the clipboard while surfing the web.
It is extremely easy to extract the text stored in the clipboard to steal your sensitive information. Share this article with as many friends as u can, to save them from online frauds.

It is true; text you last copied for pasting (copy & paste) can be stolen when you visit websites using a combination of Javascript and asp (or php, or cgi, or any server-side scripting language) to write your possible sensitive data to a database on another server.

How to safeguard yourself from Clipboard HackProblem?
To avoid clipboard hack problem, do the following:

Go to Internet Options-> Security
Press Custom Level
In the Security settings, select disable under Allow paste operations via script.
Now the contents of your clipboard are safe.

Interestingly, this hack works only on Internet Explorer, and not on Mozilla Firefox browser.

Its true by following above procedure, you can avoid clipboard Hacking. But then also I would rather say ‘Prevention is better than cure’.

Please share this article with as many friends as you can to make them aware of this issue with CTRL+C.