Archive for the ‘System Information’ Category

The problems described in the symptoms section occur because of a lock on the Service Control Manager (SCM) database.  As a result of the lock, none of the services can access the SCM database to initialize their service start requests. To verify that a Windows computer is affected by the problem discussed in this article, run the following command from the command Prompt:

sc querylock

The output below would indicate that the SCM database is locked:

QueryServiceLockstatus – Success
IsLocked : True
LockOwner : .\NT Service Control Manager
LockDuration : 1090 (seconds since acquired)

There is no additional information in the Event Logs beyond those from the Service Control Manager indicating that Service startup requests have timed out. The underlying root cause is a deadlock between the Service Control Manager and HTTP.SYS.

Resolution

You can modify the behavior of HTTP.SYS to depend on another service being started first.  To do this, perform the following steps:

  1. Open Registry Editor
  2. Navigate to HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\HTTP and create the following Multi-string value: DependOnService
  3. Double click the new DependOnService entry
  4. Type CRYPTSVC in the Value Data field and click OK.
  5. Reboot the server

NOTE: Please ensure that you make a backup of the registry / affected keys before making any changes to your system.

 

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Issue: We had a System running Server 2008 and when it would boot it would hang with “Applying User Settings”.  When it would finally load, many of the services were not started.
Diagnosis: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2004121 – This Microsoft Article explains the issue associated with the SCM database being locked:

sc querylock
The output below would indicate that the SCM database is locked:
QueryServiceLockstatus – Success
IsLocked : True
LockOwner : .\NT Service Control Manager
LockDuration : 1090 (seconds since acquired)

Resolution: You can modify the behavior of HTTP.SYS to depend on another service being started first.  To do this, perform the following steps:

  1. Open Registry Editor
  2. Navigate to HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\HTTP and create the following Multi-string value: DependOnService
  3. Double click the new DependOnService entry
  4. Type CRYPTSVC in the Value Data field and click OK.
  5. Reboot the server

 

NOTE: Please ensure that you make a backup of the registry / affected keys before making any changes to your system.

User logon problems are sometimes hard to troubleshoot. Have you checked the Application log on the machine in question? There might be (most likely) some errors in there from source Userenv (ID’s 1053, 1054).
Turning on Userenv debug logging will also help in troubleshooting user logon problems. You can do this by adding a Registry key:

– Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon
– Value: UserEnvDebugLevel
– Value Type: REG_DWORD
– Value Data: 10002 (Hex)

The log will be located in: %systemroot%\debug\usermode\userenv.log.

In the log you will exactly see what happens during logon at what time. If you see a large difference between times you’ll know what part of the logon process is causing the long delay.

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VM Backup – Backing up Virtual Machines with Windows Server 2008 R2 & Hyper-V

Overview

Virtual machines are basically made of files. They contain configuration files, virtual hard disks, snapshot files and saved state files. While running computers are virtual machines can benefit from virtualization, a lot of thought needs to be taken in order to protect the contents of the virtual machines and the VMs themselves, so that if something goes wrong, you can perform a pre-defined list of steps to successfully restore the VMs to a functional and running state.

Note: To install Windows Server Backup, log on to the computer by using the local Administrator account or another account with Administrator privileges. To perform backups or recoveries by using Windows Server Backup, you must be a member of the Administrators or Backup Operators groups.

Performing the backup

To perform the actual VM backup follow these steps:

1. Open Windows Server Backup from the Administrative Tools folder. In the Actions pane, click “Backup Once” (you can, of course, create a schedule for this backup).

 

2. In the “Backup Options” page, select “Different Options” and click Next.

3. In the “Select Backup Configuration” page, select “Custom” and click Next.

4. In the “Select Items for Backup” page, click “Add Items“.

5. In the “Select Items” window, click to select the volumes where the VM configuration files and VM hard disks are located. Also note that while it may look possible to select individual folders, do NOT select individual folders. Only select the entire volume. Failing to select the right volumes will result in a failure for the backup procedure and even if it will seem to you that all items were backed up, in fact you will not be able to restore your VMs. Click Ok.

6. Back in the “Select Items for Backup” page, click “Advanced Settings“.

7. In the “Advanced Settings” window, click to select “VSS Full Backup” and click Ok.

8. Back in the “Select Items for Backup” page, click Ok.

9. In the “Specify Destination Type” page, select the destination for the backup. I chose Local Drives, but you can also perform the backup on remote shares. Click Next.

10. In the “Select Backup Destination” page, use the drop-down list to select your destination. If you plan to backup on an external USB drive, make sure the computer recognizes it before you get to this spot. Also make sure that the destination volume contains enough free disk space for the backup to be place in. Remember that volume level backup are ALWAYS full, therefore if you’ve got 500 GB worth of VMs in one volume, you’ll need to have as much space as that (and preferably more) on your destination volume. Click Ok.

11. In the “Confirmation” page click Backup and let the backup procedure begin.

12. If you immediately switch to the Hyper-V management console, you’ll see that the VMs are being snapshotted. This is not equivalent to taking a Hyper-V snapshot, which in fact is not really a true snapshot and has nothing in relation to VSS snapshots. Because the VSS writer was registered, and because the Integration Services (Components) are installed and enabled on the VMs, they will be successfully backed up without being paused, saved or turned off. In addition, the ICs will inform the VMs that a backup procedure is taking place on the parent partition, so any VSS-aware application that is running inside the VM will also be triggered (which is very important for applications such as SQL, Exchange and so on).

13. Windows Server Backup begins to write the file(s) to disk.

14. When finished, click Close.

Summary

Backing up virtual machines can be a little different than backing up a traditional system.  Because a virtual machine is nothing more than a collection of files, it is important to be especially mindful of the backup process. One oversight along the way can mean a failed VM backup.  Hopefully this article has prepared you to backup your Virtual Machines with Hyper-V using Windows Server Backup.

 

 

Source: Petri

Flexible Single Master Operation Roles

1. Domain Naming Master —ForestWide Roles

2. Schema Master —ForestWide Roles

3. RID Master (Relative ID Master) — Domain Wide Roles

4. PDC Emulator — Domain Wide Roles

5. Infrastructure Master — Domain Wide Roles

 

Relative ID (RID) Master: — it assigns RID and SID to the newly created object like Users and computers. If RID master is down (u can create security objects up to RID pools are available in DCs) else u can’t create any object one its down. The RID master is responsible for processing RID pool requests from all domain controllers in a particular domain. When a DC creates a security principal object such as a user or group, it attaches a unique Security ID (SID) to the object.

PDC emulator: It works as a PDC to any NT Bdcs in your environment

It works as Time Server (to maintain same time in your network)

It works to change the passwords, lockout etc. The PDC emulator is necessary to synchronize time in an enterprise. Windows 2000/2003 includes the W32Time (Windows Time) time service that is required by the Kerberos authentication protocol. All Windows 2000/2003-based computers within an enterprise use a common time

  • Authentication failures that occur at a given DC in a domain because of an incorrect password are forwarded to the PDC emulator before a bad password failure message is reported to the user.
  • Account lockout is processed on the PDC emulator.
  • Editing or creation of Group Policy Objects (GPO) is always done from the GPO copy found in the PDC Emulator’s SYSVOL share, unless configured not to do so by the administrator.

At any one time, there can be only one domain controller acting as the PDC emulator master in each domain in the forest.

 

Infrastructure Master: This works when we are renaming any group member ship object this role takes care. When an object in one domain is referenced by another object in another domain, it represents the reference by the GUID, the SID (for references to security principals), and the DN of the object being referenced. The infrastructure FSMO role holder is the DC responsible for updating an object’s SID and distinguished name in a cross-domain object reference. At any one time, there can be only one domain controller acting as the infrastructure master in each domain.

Domain Naming Master: Adding / changing / deleting any Domain in a forest it takes care,. This DC is the only one that can add or remove a domain from the directory. There can be only one domain naming master in the whole forest.

Schema Master: It maintains structure of the Active Directory in a forest. The schema master domain controller controls all updates and modifications to the schema. Once the Schema update is complete, it is replicated from the schema master to all other DCs in the directory. There can be only one schema master in the whole forest.

A backup is an exact copy of a file (including documentation) that is kept on a storage medium (usually in a compressed state) in a safe place (usually at a remote location) for use in the event that the working copy is destroyed. Notice that we placed emphasis on “including documentation”, because every media holding backups must include a history or documentation of the files on the media. This is usually in the form of labels and identification data on the media itself, on the outside casing, and in spreadsheets, hard catalogs, or data ledgers in some form or another. Without history data, restore media cannot locate your files, and the backup is useless. This is why you can prepare a tape for overwriting by merely formatting the label so that the magnetic head thinks the media is blank.

 

Various types of backups are possible, depending on what you back up and how often you back it up, as the following list describes:

  • Archived backup: A backup that documents (in header files, labels, and backup records) the state of the archive bit at the time of copy. The state (on-off) of the bit indicates to the backup software that the file has been changed since the last backup. When Windows Server 2008 Backup does an archived backup, it sets the archive bit accordingly.

 

  • Copy backup: An ad hoc “raw” copy that ignores the archive bit state. It does not set the archive bit after the copy. A copy backup is useful for quick copies between DR processes and rotations or to pull an “annual” during the monthly rotation

 

  • Daily backup: This does not form part of any rotation scheme. It is just a backup of files that have been changed on the day of the backup. We question the usefulness of the daily backup in Backup, because mission-critical DR practice dictates the deployment of a manual or automated rotation scheme. In addition, Backup does not offer a summary or history of the files that have changed during the day

 

  • Normal backup: A complete backup of all files (that can be backed up), period. The term normal is more a Windows Server 2008 term, because this backup is more commonly called a full backup in DR circles. The full backup copies all files and then sets the archive bit to indicate (to Backup) that the files have been backed up. You would do a full backup at the start of any backup scheme. You would also need to do a full backup after making changes to any scheme. A full backup, and documentation or history drawn from it, is the only means of performing later incremental backups. Otherwise, the system would not know what has or has not changed since the last backup.

 

  • Incremental backup: A backup of all files that have changed since the last full or incremental backup. The backup software sets the archive bit, which thereby denotes that the files have been backed up. Under a rotation scheme, a full restore would require you to have all the incremental media used in the media pool, all the way back to the first media, which contains the full backup. You would then have the media containing all the files that have changed (and versions thereof) at the time of the last backup.

 

  • Differential backup: This works exactly like the incremental, except that it does not do anything to the archive bit. In other words, it does not mark the files as having been backed up. When the system comes around to do a differential backup, it compares the files to be backed up with the original catalog. Differential backups are best done on a weekly basis, along with a full, or normal, backup, to keep differentials comparing against recently backed up files.

Active Directory Certificate Services (AD CS)

 

AD CS provides functions necessary for issuing and revoking digital certificates for users, client computers, and servers. Includes these role services: Certification Authority, Certification Authority Web Enrollment, Online Certificate Status Protocol, and Microsoft Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol (MSCEP).

 

Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS)

 

AD DS provides functions necessary for storing information about users, groups, computers, and other objects on the network and makes this information available to users and computers. Domain controllers give network users and computers access to permitted resources on the network.

 

Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS)

 

AD FS complements the authentication and access management features of AD DS by extending them to the World Wide Web. Includes these role services and subservices: Federation Service, Federation Service Proxy, AD FS Web Agents, Claims-Aware Agent, and Windows Token-Based Agent.

 

Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS)

 

AD LDS provides a data store for directory-enabled applications that do not require AD DS and do not need to be deployed on domain controllers. Does not include additional role services.

 

Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS)

 

AD RMS provides controlled access to protected e-mail messages, documents, intranet Web pages, and other types of fi les. Includes these role services: Active Directory Rights Management Server and Identity Federation Support.

 

Application Server

 

Application Server allows a server to host distributed applications built using ASP.NET, Enterprise Services, and .NET Framework 3.0. Includes more than a dozen role services.

 

DHCP Server

 

DHCP provides centralized control over Internet Protocol (IP) addressing. DHCP servers can assign dynamic IP addresses and essential TCP/IP settings to other computers on a network. Does not include additional role services.

 

DNS Server

 

DNS is a name resolution system that resolves computer names to IP addresses. DNS servers are essential for name resolution in Active Directory domains. Does not include additional role services.

 

Fax Server

 

Fax Server provides centralized control over sending and receiving faxes in the enterprise. A fax server can act as a gateway for faxing and allows you to manage fax resources, such as jobs and reports, and fax devices on the server or on the network. Does not include additional role services.

 

File Services

 

File Services provide essential services for managing fi les and the way they are made available and replicated on the network. A number of server roles require some type of fi le service. Includes these role services and subservices: File Server, Distributed File System, DFS Namespace, DFS Replication, File Server Resource Manager, Services for Network File System (NFS), Windows Search Service, Windows Server 2003 File Services, File Replication Service (FRS), and Indexing Service.

 

Network Policy And Access Services (NPAS)

 

NPAS provides essential services for managing routing and remote access to networks. Includes these role services: Network Policy Server (NPS), Routing And Remote Access Services (RRAS), Remote Access Service, Routing, Health Registration Authority, and Host Credential Authorization Protocol (HCAP).

 

Print Services

 

Print Services provide essential services for managing network printers and print drivers. Includes these role services: Print Server, LPD Service, and Internet Printing.

 

Terminal Services

 

Terminal Services provide services that allow users to run Windows-based applications that are installed on a remote server. When users run an application on a terminal server, the execution and processing occur on the server, and only the data from the application is transmitted over the network. Includes these role services: Terminal Server, TS Licensing, TS Session Broker, TS Gateway, and TS Web Access.

 

Universal Description Discovery Integration (UDDI) Services

 

UDDI provides capabilities for sharing information about Web services both within an organization and between organizations. Includes these role services

 

Web Server (IIS)

 

Web Server (IIS) is used to host Web sites and Web-based applications. Web sites hosted on a Web server can have both static content and dynamic content. You can build Web applications hosted on a Web server using ASP.NET and .NET Framework 3.0. When you deploy a Web server, you can manage the server configuration using IIS 7.0 modules and administration tools.

 

Windows Deployment Services (WDS)

 

WDS provides services for deploying Windows computers in the enterprise. Includes these role services: Deployment Server and Transport Server.

 

Windows SharePoint Services

 

Windows SharePoint Services enable team collaboration by connecting people and information. A SharePoint server is essentially a Web server running a full installation of IIS and using managed applications that provide the necessary collaboration functionality.

 

Windows Server Update Services

 

Microsoft Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) allows you to distribute updates that are released through Microsoft Update to computers in your organization using centralized servers rather than individual updates.

 

 

The /32 and /64 parameters for the mmc command are meaningful only on 64-bit Windows versions. The 64-bit versions of the Windows operating system can run both 32-bit and 64-bit versions of the MMC. For 32-bit versions of the MMC, you use 32-bit snap-ins. For 64-bit versions of the MMC, you use 64-bit snap-ins. You can’t mix and match MMC and snap-in versions, though. The 32-bit version of the MMC can be used only to work with 32-bit snap-ins. Similarly, the 64-bit version of the MMC can be used only to work with 64-bit snap-ins. In most cases, if you aren’t sure which version to use, don’t use the /32 or /64 parameter. This lets the Windows operating system decide which version to use based on the snap-ins contained in the .msc file you are opening.

 

When a console contains both 32-bit and 64-bit snap-ins and you don’t specify the /32 or /64 parameter, Windows will open a subset of the configured snap-ins. If the console contains more 32-bit snap-ins, Windows will open the 32-bit snap-ins. If the console contains more 64-bit snap-ins, Windows will open the 64-bit snap-ins. If you explicitly use /32 or /64 with a console that contains both 32-bit and 64-bit snap-ins, Windows will open only the snap-ins for that bitness. On 64-bit systems, 32-bit versions of snap-ins are stored in the %SystemRoot%\SysVoL64 folder and 64-bit versions of snap-ins are stored in the %SystemRoot%\System32 folder. By examining the contents of these folders, you can determine when 32-bit and 64-bit versions of snap-ins are available.

Windows Server 2008 provides several tools that can be used when troubleshooting Kerberos Authentication

 

Klist.exe: Kerberos List: This tool is installed on Windows Server 2008 domain controllers and is available for download as part of the Windows Server 2003 Resource Kit tools.

 

Kerberos List is a command-line tool that is used to view and delete Kerberos tickets granted to the current logon session. To use Kerberos List to view tickets, you must run the tool on a computer that is a member of a Kerberos realm.

 

Kerbtray.exe: Kerberos Tray: Kerberos Tray is available for download as part of the Windows Server 2003 Resource Kit tools.

 

Kerberos Tray is a graphical user interface tool that displays ticket information for a computer running Microsoft’s implementation of the Kerberos version 5 authentication protocols. You can view and purge the ticket cache by using the Kerberos Tray tool icon located in the notification area of the desktop. By positioning the cursor over the icon, you can view the time left until the initial TGT expires. The icon also changes in the hour before the Local Security Authority (LSA) renews the ticket.

 

Tokensz.exe: Kerberos Token Size: Kerberos Token Size is available for download from the Microsoft download center.

 

You can use Kerberos Token Size to verify if the source of the Kerberos errors stems from a maximum token size issue. The tool will simulate an authentication request and report the size of the resulting Kerberos token. The tool will also report the maximum supported size for the token.

 

Setspn.exe: The Setspn utility is installed on Windows Server 2008 domain controllers and is included in the Windows Server 2003 Support Tools.

 

The Setspn utility allows you to read, modify, and delete the Service Principal Names (SPN) directory property for an Active Directory service account. Because SPNs are security-sensitive, you can only set SPNs for service accounts if you have domain administrator privileges.

 

Ksetup.exe: The Ksetup utility is installed on Windows Server 2008 domain controllers and is included in the Windows Server 2003 Support Tools.

 

The Ksetup utility configures a client connected to a server running Windows Server 2008 to use a server running Kerberos V5. The client then uses a Kerberos V5 realm instead of a Windows Server 2008 domain.

 

Ktpass.exe: The Ktpass utility is installed on Windows Server 2008 domain controllers and is included in the Windows Server 2003 Support Tools.

 

The Ktpass utility is used to configure a non–Windows Server Kerberos service as a security principal in the Windows Server 2008 AD DS.

 

W32tm.exe: Windows Time: This tool is included in Microsoft Windows server and client operating systems.

 

W32tm.exe is used to configure Windows Time service settings. It can also be used to diagnose problems with the time service.