Archive for August 17, 2009

Block USB in Windows XP

1. Start -> Run -> regedit ->Find the Hkey_Local_Machine>System>Current Control set>Services>USBStor.

2. Look at the right pain and find out the Start where value of the start would be 0000000(3) edit the value by double mouse click and type 4 and save.

3. Restart your computer.

100 Most used keyboard shortcuts
CTRL+C (Copy)
CTRL+X (Cut)
CTRL+V (Paste)
CTRL+Z (Undo)
DELETE (Delete)
SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin)
CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)
CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item)
F2 key (Rename the selected item)
CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word)
CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word)
CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph)
CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph)
CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text)
SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document)
CTRL+A (Select all)
F3 key (Search for a file or a folder)
ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item)
ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program)
ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object)
ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window)
CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents open simultaneously)
ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items)
ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened)
F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop)
F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item)
ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window)
CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu)
ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu)
Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the corresponding command)
F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program)
RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu)
LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu)
F5 key (Update the active window)
BACKSPACE (View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
ESC (Cancel the current task)
SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-ROM from automatically playing)
Dialog Box Keyboard Shortcuts
CTRL+TAB (Move forward through the tabs)
CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the tabs)
TAB (Move forward through the options)
SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the options)
ALT+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option)
ENTER (Perform the command for the active option or button)
SPACEBAR (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box)
Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons)
F1 key (Display Help)
F4 key (Display the items in the active list)
BACKSPACE (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box)
m*cro$oft Natural Keyboard Shortcuts
Windows Logo (Display or hide the Start menu)
Windows Logo+BREAK (Display the System Properties dialog box)
Windows Logo+D (Display the desktop)
Windows Logo+M (Minimize all of the windows)
Windows Logo+SHIFT+M (Restore the minimized windows)
Windows Logo+E (Open My Computer)
Windows Logo+F (Search for a file or a folder)
CTRL+Windows Logo+F (Search for computers)
Windows Logo+F1 (Display Windows Help)
Windows Logo+ L (Lock the keyboard)
Windows Logo+R (Open the Run dialog box)
Windows Logo+U (Open Utility Manager)
Accessibility Keyboard Shortcuts
Right SHIFT for eight seconds (Switch FilterKeys either on or off)
Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN (Switch High Contrast either on or off)
Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK (Switch the MouseKeys either on or off)
SHIFT five times (Switch the StickyKeys either on or off)
NUM LOCK for five seconds (Switch the ToggleKeys either on or off)
Windows Logo +U (Open Utility Manager)
Windows Explorer Keyboard Shortcuts
END (Display the bottom of the active window)
HOME (Display the top of the active window)
NUM LOCK+Asterisk sign (*) (Display all of the subfolders that are under the selected folder)
NUM LOCK+Plus sign (+) (Display the contents of the selected folder)
NUM LOCK+Minus sign (-) (Collapse the selected folder)
LEFT ARROW (Collapse the current selection if it is expanded, or select the parent folder)
RIGHT ARROW (Display the current selection if it is collapsed, or select the first subfolder)
Shortcut Keys for Character Map
After you double-click a character on the grid of characters, you can move through the grid by using the keyboard shortcuts:
RIGHT ARROW (Move to the right or to the beginning of the next line)
LEFT ARROW (Move to the left or to the end of the previous line)
UP ARROW (Move up one row)
DOWN ARROW (Move down one row)
PAGE UP (Move up one screen at a time)
PAGE DOWN (Move down one screen at a time)
HOME (Move to the beginning of the line)
END (Move to the end of the line)
CTRL+HOME (Move to the first character)
CTRL+END (Move to the last character)
SPACEBAR (Switch between Enlarged and Normal mode when a character is selected)
m*cro$oft Management Console (MMC) Main Window Keyboard Shortcuts
CTRL+O (Open a saved console)
CTRL+N (Open a new console)
CTRL+S (Save the open console)
CTRL+M (Add or remove a console item)
CTRL+W (Open a new window)
F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the MMC window menu)
ALT+F4 (Close the console)
ALT+A (Display the Action menu)
ALT+V (Display the View menu)
ALT+F (Display the File menu)
ALT+O (Display the Favorites menu)
MMC Console Window Keyboard Shortcuts
CTRL+P (Print the current page or active pane)
ALT+Minus sign (-) (Display the window menu for the active console window)
SHIFT+F10 (Display the Action shortcut menu for the selected item)
F1 key (Open the Help topic, if any, for the selected item)
F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
CTRL+F10 (Maximize the active console window)
CTRL+F5 (Restore the active console window)
ALT+ENTER (Display the Properties dialog box, if any, for the selected item)
F2 key (Rename the selected item)
CTRL+F4 (Close the active console window. When a console has only one console window, this shortcut closes the console)
Remote Desktop Connection Navigation
CTRL+ALT+END (Open the m*cro$oft Windows NT Security dialog box)
ALT+PAGE UP (Switch between programs from left to right)
ALT+PAGE DOWN (Switch between programs from right to left)
ALT+INSERT (Cycle through the programs in most recently used order)
ALT+HOME (Display the Start menu)
CTRL+ALT+BREAK (Switch the client computer between a window and a full screen)
ALT+DELETE (Display the Windows menu)
CTRL+ALT+Minus sign (-) (Place a snapshot of the active window in the client on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)
CTRL+ALT+Plus sign (+) (Place a snapshot of the entire client window area on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing ALT+PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)
m*cro$oft Internet Explorer Navigation
CTRL+B (Open the Organize Favorites dialog box)
CTRL+E (Open the Search bar)
CTRL+F (Start the Find utility)
CTRL+H (Open the History bar)
CTRL+I (Open the Favorites bar)
CTRL+L (Open the Open dialog box)
CTRL+N (Start another instance of the browser with the same Web address)
CTRL+O (Open the Open dialog box, the same as CTRL+L)
CTRL+P (Open the Print dialog box)
CTRL+R (Update the current Web page)
CTRL+W (Close the current window)

Fatal error: the system has become unstable or is busy,” it says. “Enter to return to Windows or press Control-Alt-Delete to restart your computer. If you do this you will lose any unsaved information in all open applications.”

You have just been struck by the Blue Screen of Death. Anyone who uses Mcft Windows will be familiar with this. What can you do? More importantly, how can you prevent it happening?

1 Hardware conflict

The number one reason why Windows crashes is hardware conflict. Each hardware device communicates to other devices through an interrupt request channel (IRQ). These are supposed to be unique for each device.

For example, a printer usually connects internally on IRQ 7. The keyboard usually uses IRQ 1 and the floppy disk drive IRQ 6. Each device will try to hog a single IRQ for itself.

If there are a lot of devices, or if they are not installed properly, two of them may end up sharing the same IRQ number. When the user tries to use both devices at the same time, a crash can happen. The way to check if your computer has a hardware conflict is through the following route:

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Device Manager.

Often if a device has a problem a yellow ‘!’ appears next to its description in the Device Manager. Highlight Computer (in the Device Manager) and press Properties to see the IRQ numbers used by your computer. If the IRQ number appears twice, two devices may be using it.

Sometimes a device might share an IRQ with something described as ‘IRQ holder for PCI steering’. This can be ignored. The best way to fix this problem is to remove the problem device and reinstall it.

Sometimes you may have to find more recent drivers on the internet to make the device function properly. A good resource is If the device is a soundcard, or a modem, it can often be fixed by moving it to a different slot on the motherboard (be careful about opening your computer, as you may void the warranty).

When working inside a computer you should switch it off, unplug the mains lead and touch an unpainted metal surface to discharge any static electricity.

To be fair to Mcft, the problem with IRQ numbers is not of its making. It is a legacy problem going back to the first PC designs using the IBM 8086 chip. Initially there were only eight IRQs. Today there are 16 IRQs in a PC. It is easy to run out of them. There are plans to increase the number of IRQs in future designs.

2 Bad Ram

Ram (random-access memory) problems might bring on the blue screen of death with a message saying Fatal Exception Error. A fatal error indicates a serious hardware problem. Sometimes it may mean a part is damaged and will need replacing.

But a fatal error caused by Ram might be caused by a mismatch of chips. For example, mixing 70-nanosecond (70ns) Ram with 60ns Ram will usually force the computer to run all the Ram at the slower speed. This will often crash the machine if the Ram is overworked.

One way around this problem is to enter the BIOS settings and increase the wait state of the Ram. This can make it more stable. Another way to troubleshoot a suspected Ram problem is to rearrange the Ram chips on the motherboard, or take some of them out. Then try to repeat the circumstances that caused the crash. When handling Ram try not to touch the gold connections, as they can be easily damaged.

Parity error messages also refer to Ram. Modern Ram chips are either parity (ECC) or non parity (non-ECC). It is best not to mix the two types, as this can be a cause of trouble.

EMM386 error messages refer to memory problems but may not be connected to bad Ram. This may be due to free memory problems often linked to old Dos-based programmes.

3 BIOS settings

Every motherboard is supplied with a range of chipset settings that are decided in the factory. A common way to access these settings is to press the F2 or delete button during the first few seconds of a boot-up.

Once inside the BIOS, great care should be taken. It is a good idea to write down on a piece of paper all the settings that appear on the screen. That way, if you change something and the computer becomes more unstable, you will know what settings to revert to.

A common BIOS error concerns the CAS latency. This refers to the Ram. Older EDO (extended data out) Ram has a CAS latency of 3. Newer SDRam has a CAS latency of 2. Setting the wrong figure can cause the Ram to lock up and freeze the computer’s display.

Mcft Windows is better at allocating IRQ numbers than any BIOS. If possible set the IRQ numbers to Auto in the BIOS. This will allow Windows to allocate the IRQ numbers (make sure the BIOS setting for Plug and Play OS is switched to ‘yes’ to allow Windows to do this.).

4 Hard disk drives

After a few weeks, the information on a hard disk drive starts to become piecemeal or fragmented. It is a good idea to defragment the hard disk every week or so, to prevent the disk from causing a screen freeze. Go to

* Start-Programs-Accessories-System Tools-Disk Defragmenter

This will start the procedure. You will be unable to write data to the hard drive (to save it) while the disk is defragmenting, so it is a good idea to schedule the procedure for a period of inactivity using the Task Scheduler.

The Task Scheduler should be one of the small icons on the bottom right of the Windows opening page (the desktop).

Some lockups and screen freezes caused by hard disk problems can be solved by reducing the read-ahead optimisation. This can be adjusted by going to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System Icon-Performance-File System-Hard Disk.

Hard disks will slow down and crash if they are too full. Do some housekeeping on your hard drive every few months and free some space on it. Open the Windows folder on the C drive and find the Temporary Internet Files folder. Deleting the contents (not the folder) can free a lot of space.

Empty the Recycle Bin every week to free more space. Hard disk drives should be scanned every week for errors or bad sectors. Go to

* Start-Programs-Accessories-System Tools-ScanDisk

Otherwise assign the Task Scheduler to perform this operation at night when the computer is not in use.

5 Fatal OE exceptions and VXD errors

Fatal OE exception errors and VXD errors are often caused by video card problems.

These can often be resolved easily by reducing the resolution of the video display. Go to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-Display-Settings

Here you should slide the screen area bar to the left. Take a look at the colour settings on the left of that window. For most desktops, high colour 16-bit depth is adequate.

If the screen freezes or you experience system lockups it might be due to the video card. Make sure it does not have a hardware conflict. Go to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Device Manager

Here, select the + beside Display Adapter. A line of text describing your video card should appear. Select it (make it blue) and press properties. Then select Resources and select each line in the window. Look for a message that says No Conflicts.

If you have video card hardware conflict, you will see it here. Be careful at this point and make a note of everything you do in case you make things worse.

The way to resolve a hardware conflict is to uncheck the Use Automatic Settings box and hit the Change Settings button. You are searching for a setting that will display a No Conflicts message.

Another useful way to resolve video problems is to go to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-System-Performance-Graphics

Here you should move the Hardware Acceleration slider to the left. As ever, the most common cause of problems relating to graphics cards is old or faulty drivers (a driver is a small piece of software used by a computer to communicate with a device).

Look up your video card’s manufacturer on the internet and search for the most recent drivers for it.

6 Viruses

Often the first sign of a virus infection is instability. Some viruses erase the boot sector of a hard drive, making it impossible to start. This is why it is a good idea to create a Windows start-up disk. Go to

* Start-Settings-Control Panel-Add/Remove Programs

Here, look for the Start Up Disk tab. Virus protection requires constant vigilance.

A virus scanner requires a list of virus signatures in order to be able to identify viruses. These signatures are stored in a DAT file. DAT files should be updated weekly from the website of your antivirus software manufacturer.

An excellent antivirus programme is McAfee VirusScan by Network Associates ( Another is Norton AntiVirus 2000, made by Symantec (

7 Printers

The action of sending a document to print creates a bigger file, often called a postscript file.

Printers have only a small amount of memory, called a buffer. This can be easily overloaded. Printing a document also uses a considerable amount of CPU power. This will also slow down the computer’s performance.

If the printer is trying to print unusual characters, these might not be recognised, and can crash the computer. Sometimes printers will not recover from a crash because of confusion in the buffer. A good way to clear the buffer is to unplug the printer for ten seconds. Booting up from a powerless state, also called a cold boot, will restore the printer’s default settings and you may be able to carry on.

8 Software

A common cause of computer crash is faulty or badly-installed software. Often the problem can be cured by uninstalling the software and then reinstalling it. Use Norton Uninstall or Uninstall Shield to remove an application from your system properly. This will also remove references to the programme in the System Registry and leaves the way clear for a completely fresh copy.

The System Registry can be corrupted by old references to obsolete software that you thought was uninstalled. Use Reg Cleaner by Jouni Vuorio to clean up the System Registry and remove obsolete entries. It works on Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 98 SE (Second Edition), Windows Millennium Edition (ME), NT4 and Windows 2000.

Read the instructions and use it carefully so you don’t do permanent damage to the Registry. If the Registry is damaged you will have to reinstall your operating system. Reg Cleaner can be obtained from

Often a Windows problem can be resolved by entering Safe Mode. This can be done during start-up. When you see the message “Starting Windows” press F4. This should take you into Safe Mode.

Safe Mode loads a minimum of drivers. It allows you to find and fix problems that prevent Windows from loading properly.

Sometimes installing Windows is difficult because of unsuitable BIOS settings. If you keep getting SUWIN error messages (Windows setup) during the Windows installation, then try entering the BIOS and disabling the CPU internal cache. Try to disable the Level 2 (L2) cache if that doesn’t work.

Remember to restore all the BIOS settings back to their former settings following installation.

9 Overheating

Central processing units (CPUs) are usually equipped with fans to keep them cool. If the fan fails or if the CPU gets old it may start to overheat and generate a particular kind of error called a kernel error. This is a common problem in chips that have been overclocked to operate at higher speeds than they are supposed to.

One remedy is to get a bigger better fan and install it on top of the CPU. Specialist cooling fans/heatsinks are available from or

CPU problems can often be fixed by disabling the CPU internal cache in the BIOS. This will make the machine run more slowly, but it should also be more stable.

10 Power supply problems

With all the new construction going on around the country the steady supply of electricity has become disrupted. A power surge or spike can crash a computer as easily as a power cut.

If this has become a nuisance for you then consider buying a uninterrupted power supply (UPS). This will give you a clean power supply when there is electricity, and it will give you a few minutes to perform a controlled shutdown in case of a power cut.

It is a good investment if your data are critical, because a power cut will cause any unsaved data to be lost.

Since defragging the disk won’t do much to improve Windows XP performance, here are 23 suggestions that will. Each can enhance the performance and reliability of your customers’ PCs. Best of all, most of them will cost you nothing.

1.) To decrease a system’s boot time and increase system performance, use the money you save by not buying defragmentation software — the built-in Windows defragmenter works just fine — and instead equip the computer with an Ultra-133 or Serial ATA hard drive with 8-MB cache buffer.

2.) If a PC has less than 512 MB of RAM, add more memory. This is a relatively inexpensive and easy upgrade that can dramatically improve system performance.

3.) Ensure that Windows XP is utilizing the NTFS file system. If you’re not sure, here’s how to check: First, double-click the My Computer icon, right-click on the C: Drive, then select Properties. Next, examine the File System type; if it says FAT32, then back-up any important data. Next, click Start, click Run, type CMD, and then click OK. At the prompt, type CONVERT C: /FS:NTFS and press the Enter key. This process may take a while; it’s important that the computer be uninterrupted and virus-free. The file system used by the bootable drive will be either FAT32 or NTFS. I highly recommend NTFS for its superior security, reliability, and efficiency with larger disk drives.

4.) Disable file indexing. The indexing service extracts information from documents and other files on the hard drive and creates a “searchable keyword index.” As you can imagine, this process can be quite taxing on any system.

The idea is that the user can search for a word, phrase, or property inside a document, should they have hundreds or thousands of documents and not know the file name of the document they want. Windows XP’s built-in search functionality can still perform these kinds of searches without the Indexing service. It just takes longer. The OS has to open each file at the time of the request to help find what the user is looking for.

Most people never need this feature of search. Those who do are typically in a large corporate environment where thousands of documents are located on at least one server. But if you’re a typical system builder, most of your clients are small and medium businesses. And if your clients have no need for this search feature, I recommend disabling it.

Here’s how: First, double-click the My Computer icon. Next, right-click on the C: Drive, then select Properties. Uncheck “Allow Indexing Service to index this disk for fast file searching.” Next, apply changes to “C: subfolders and files,” and click OK. If a warning or error message appears (such as “Access is denied”), click the Ignore All button.

5.) Update the PC’s video and motherboard chipset drivers. Also, update and configure the BIOS. For more information on how to configure your BIOS properly, see this article on my site.

6.) Empty the Windows Prefetch folder every three months or so. Windows XP can “prefetch” portions of data and applications that are used frequently. This makes processes appear to load faster when called upon by the user. That’s fine. But over time, the prefetch folder may become overloaded with references to files and applications no longer in use. When that happens, Windows XP is wasting time, and slowing system performance, by pre-loading them. Nothing critical is in this folder, and the entire contents are safe to delete.

7.) Once a month, run a disk cleanup. Here’s how: Double-click the My Computer icon. Then right-click on the C: drive and select Properties. Click the Disk Cleanup button — it’s just to the right of the Capacity pie graph — and delete all temporary files.

8.) In your Device Manager, double-click on the IDE ATA/ATAPI Controllers device, and ensure that DMA is enabled for each drive you have connected to the Primary and Secondary controller. Do this by double-clicking on Primary IDE Channel. Then click the Advanced Settings tab. Ensure the Transfer Mode is set to “DMA if available” for both Device 0 and Device 1. Then repeat this process with the Secondary IDE Channel.

9.) Upgrade the cabling. As hard-drive technology improves, the cabling requirements to achieve these performance boosts have become more stringent. Be sure to use 80-wire Ultra-133 cables on all of your IDE devices with the connectors properly assigned to the matching Master/Slave/Motherboard sockets. A single device must be at the end of the cable; connecting a single drive to the middle connector on a ribbon cable will cause signaling problems. With Ultra DMA hard drives, these signaling problems will prevent the drive from performing at its maximum potential. Also, because these cables inherently support “cable select,” the location of each drive on the cable is important. For these reasons, the cable is designed so drive positioning is explicitly clear.

10.) Remove all spyware from the computer. Use free programs such as AdAware by Lavasoft or SpyBot Search & Destroy. Once these programs are installed, be sure to check for and download any updates before starting your search. Anything either program finds can be safely removed. Any free software that requires spyware to run will no longer function once the spyware portion has been removed; if your customer really wants the program even though it contains spyware, simply reinstall it. For more information on removing Spyware visit this Web Pro News page.

11.) Remove any unnecessary programs and/or items from Windows Startup routine using the MSCONFIG utility. Here’s how: First, click Start, click Run, type MSCONFIG, and click OK. Click the StartUp tab, then uncheck any items you don’t want to start when Windows starts. Unsure what some items are? Visit the WinTasks Process Library. It contains known system processes, applications, as well as spyware references and explanations. Or quickly identify them by searching for the filenames using Google or another Web search engine.

12.) Remove any unnecessary or unused programs from the Add/Remove Programs section of the Control Panel.

13.) Turn off any and all unnecessary animations, and disable active desktop. In fact, for optimal performance, turn off all animations. Windows XP offers many different settings in this area. Here’s how to do it: First click on the System icon in the Control Panel. Next, click on the Advanced tab. Select the Settings button located under Performance. Feel free to play around with the options offered here, as nothing you can change will alter the reliability of the computer — only its responsiveness.

14.) If your customer is an advanced user who is comfortable editing their registry, try some of the performance registry tweaks offered at Tweak XP.

15.) Visit Microsoft’s Windows update site regularly, and download all updates labeled Critical. Download any optional updates at your discretion.

16.) Update the customer’s anti-virus software on a weekly, even daily, basis. Make sure they have only one anti-virus software package installed. Mixing anti-virus software is a sure way to spell disaster for performance and reliability.

17.) Make sure the customer has fewer than 500 type fonts installed on their computer. The more fonts they have, the slower the system will become. While Windows XP handles fonts much more efficiently than did the previous versions of Windows, too many fonts — that is, anything over 500 — will noticeably tax the system.

18.) Do not partition the hard drive. Windows XP’s NTFS file system runs more efficiently on one large partition. The data is no safer on a separate partition, and a reformat is never necessary to reinstall an operating system. The same excuses people offer for using partitions apply to using a folder instead. For example, instead of putting all your data on the D: drive, put it in a folder called “D drive.” You’ll achieve the same organizational benefits that a separate partition offers, but without the degradation in system performance. Also, your free space won’t be limited by the size of the partition; instead, it will be limited by the size of the entire hard drive. This means you won’t need to resize any partitions, ever. That task can be time-consuming and also can result in lost data.

19.) Check the system’s RAM to ensure it is operating properly. I recommend using a free program called MemTest86. The download will make a bootable CD or diskette (your choice), which will run 10 extensive tests on the PC’s memory automatically after you boot to the disk you created. Allow all tests to run until at least three passes of the 10 tests are completed. If the program encounters any errors, turn off and unplug the computer, remove a stick of memory (assuming you have more than one), and run the test again. Remember, bad memory cannot be repaired, but only replaced.

20.) If the PC has a CD or DVD recorder, check the drive manufacturer’s Web site for updated firmware. In some cases you’ll be able to upgrade the recorder to a faster speed. Best of all, it’s free.

21.) Disable unnecessary services. Windows XP loads a lot of services that your customer most likely does not need. To determine which services you can disable for your client, visit the Black Viper site for Windows XP configurations.

22.) If you’re sick of a single Windows Explorer window crashing and then taking the rest of your OS down with it, then follow this tip: open My Computer, click on Tools, then Folder Options. Now click on the View tab. Scroll down to “Launch folder windows in a separate process,” and enable this option. You’ll have to reboot your machine for this option to take effect.

23.) At least once a year, open the computer’s cases and blow out all the dust and debris. While you’re in there, check that all the fans are turning properly. Also inspect the motherboard capacitors for bulging or leaks. For more information on this leaking-capacitor phenomena, you can read numerous articles on my site.

Following any of these suggestions should result in noticeable improvements to the performance and reliability of your customers’ computers. If you still want to defrag a disk, remember that the main benefit will be to make your data more retrievable in the event of a crashed drive.

Computer Acronyms

Posted: August 17, 2009 in System Basics, System Information

ADSL – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

AGP – Accelerated Graphics Port

ALI – Acer Labs, Incorporated

ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit

AMD – Advanced Micro Devices

APC – American Power Conversion

ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ASIC – Application Specific Integrated Circuit

ASPI – Advanced SCSI Programming Interface

AT – Advanced Technology

ATI – ATI Technologies Inc.

ATX – Advanced Technology Extended

— B —

BFG – BFG Technologies

BIOS – Basic Input Output System

BNC – Barrel Nut Connector

— C —

CAS – Column Address Signal

CD – Compact Disk

CDR – Compact Disk Recorder

CDRW – Compact Disk Re-Writer

CD-ROM – Compact Disk – Read Only Memory

CFM – Cubic Feet per Minute (ft�/min)

CMOS – Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

CPU – Central Processing Unit

CTX – CTX Technology Corporation (Commited to Excellence)

— D —

DDR – Double Data Rate

DDR-SDRAM – Double Data Rate – Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory

DFI – DFI Inc. (Design for Innovation)

DIMM – Dual Inline Memory Module

DRAM – Dynamic Random Access Memory

DPI – Dots Per Inch


DVD – Digital Versatile Disc

DVD-RAM – Digital Versatile Disk – Random Access Memory

— E —

ECC – Error Correction Code

ECS – Elitegroup Computer Systems

EDO – Extended Data Out

EEPROM – Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory

EPROM – Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory

EVGA – EVGA Corporation

— F —

FC-PGA – Flip Chip Pin Grid Array

FDC – Floppy Disk Controller

FDD – Floppy Disk Drive

FPS – Frame Per Second

FPU – Floating Point Unit

FSAA – Full Screen Anti-Aliasing

FS – For Sale

FSB – Front Side Bus

— G —

GB – Gigabytes

GBps – Gigabytes per second or Gigabits per second

GDI – Graphical Device Interface

GHz – GigaHertz

— H —

HDD – Hard Disk Drive

HIS – Hightech Information System Limited

HP – Hewlett-Packard Development Company

HSF – Heatsink-Fan

— I —

IBM – International Business Machines Corporation

IC – Integrated Circuit

IDE – Integrated Drive Electronics

IFS- Item for Sale

IRQ – Interrupt Request

ISA – Industry Standard Architecture

ISO – International Standards Organization

— J —

JBL – JBL (Jame B. Lansing) Speakers

JVC – JVC Company of America

– K —

Kbps – Kilobits Per Second

KBps – KiloBytes per second

— L —

LG – LG Electronics

LAN – Local Are Network

LCD – Liquid Crystal Display

LDT – Lightning Data Transport

LED – Light Emitting Diode

— M —

MAC – Media Access Control

MB � MotherBoard or Megabyte

MBps – Megabytes Per Second

Mbps – Megabits Per Second or Megabits Per Second

MHz – MegaHertz

MIPS – Million Instructions Per Second

MMX – Multi-Media Extensions

MSI – Micro Star International

— N —

NAS – Network Attached Storage

NAT – Network Address Translation

NEC – NEC Corporation

NIC – Network Interface Card

— O —

OC – Overclock (Over Clock)

OCZ – OCZ Technology

OEM – Original Equipment Manufacturer

— P —

PC – Personal Computer

PCB – Printed Circuit Board

PCI – Peripheral Component Interconnect

PDA – Personal Digital Assistant

PCMCIA – Peripheral Component Microchannel Interconnect Architecture

PGA – Professional Graphics Array

PLD – Programmable Logic Device

PM – Private Message / Private Messaging

PnP – Plug ‘n Play

PNY – PNY Technology

POST – Power On Self Test

PPPoA – Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM

PPPoE – Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet

PQI – PQI Corporation

PSU – Power Supply Unit

— R —

RAID – Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks

RAM – Random Access Memory

RAMDAC – Random Access Memory Digital Analog Convertor

RDRAM – Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory

ROM – Read Only Memory

RPM – Revolutions Per Minute

— S —

SASID – Self-scanned Amorphous Silicon Integrated Display

SCA – SCSI Configured Automatically

SCSI – Small Computer System Interface

SDRAM – Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory

SECC – Single Edge Contact Connector

SODIMM – Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Module

SPARC – Scalable Processor ArChitecture

SOHO – Small Office Home Office

SRAM – Static Random Access Memory

SSE – Streaming SIMD Extensions

SVGA – Super Video Graphics Array

S/PDIF – Sony/Philips Digital Interface

— T —

TB – Terabytes

TBps – Terabytes per second

Tbps – Terabits per second

TDK – TDK Electronics

TEC – Thermoelectric Cooler

TPC – TipidPC

TWAIN – Technology Without An Important Name

— U —

UART – Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter

USB – Universal Serial Bus

UTP – Unshieled Twisted Pair

— V —

VCD – Video CD

VPN – Virtual Private Network

— W —

WAN – Wide Area Network

WTB – Want to Buy

WYSIWYG – What You See Is What You Get

— X —

XGA – Extended Graphics Array

XFX – XFX Graphics, a Division of Pine

XMS – Extended Memory Specification

XT – Extended Technology

How To Convert File System, fat – fat32 to ntfs

open a dos prompt and give the command

convert d: /fs:ntfs

this command would convert your d: drive to ntfs.

if the system cannot lock the drive, you will be prompted to convert it during next reboot.

Normally you should select yes.

Conversion from fat/fat32 to ntfs is non-destructive, your data on the drive will NOT be lost.

Be aware that converting to ntfs will make that partition of your

drive unreadable under dos unless you have ntfs utilites to do so.

All DOS commands

Posted: August 17, 2009 in System Information

All DOS commands

There are some hidden dos commands which u can’t recognise by typing help in cmd

Here they are with description
Defines functions that change display graphics, control cursor movement, and reassign keys.
Causes MS-DOS to look in other directories when editing a file or running a command.
Displays, adds, and removes arp information from network devices.
Assign a drive letter to an alternate letter.
View the file associations.
Schedule a time to execute commands or programs.
Lists connections and addresses seen by Windows ATM call manager.
Display and change file attributes.
Recovery console command that executes a series of commands in a file.
Recovery console command that allows a user to view, modify, and rebuild the boot.ini
Enable / disable CTRL + C feature.
View and modify file ACL’s.
Calls a batch file from another batch file.
Changes directories.
Supplement the International keyboard and character set information.
Changes directories.
Check the hard disk drive running FAT for errors.
Check the hard disk drive running NTFS for errors.
Specify a listing of multiple options within a batch file.
Clears the screen.
Opens the command interpreter.
Easily change the foreground and background color of the MS-DOS window.
Opens the command interpreter.
Compares files.
Compresses and uncompress files.
Open Control Panel icons from the MS-DOS prompt.
Convert FAT to NTFS.
Copy one or more files to an alternate location.
Change the computers input/output devices.
View or change the systems date.
Debug utility to create assembly programs to modify hardware settings.
Re-arrange the hard disk drive to help with loading programs.
Deletes one or more files.
Recovery console command that deletes a file.
Deletes one or more files and/or directories.
List the contents of one or more directory.
Recovery console command that disables Windows system services or drivers.
Compare a disk with another disk.
Copy the contents of one disk and place them on another disk.
Command to view and execute commands that have been run in the past.
A GUI to help with early MS-DOS users.
Enables overwrite of original device drivers.
Displays messages and enables and disables echo.
View and edit files.
View and edit files.
Load extended Memory Manager.
Recovery console command to enable a disable service or driver.
Stops the localization of the environment changes enabled by the setlocal command.
Erase files from computer.
Exit from the command interpreter.
Expand a Microsoft Windows file back to it’s original format.
Extract files from the Microsoft Windows cabinets.
Displays a listing of MS-DOS commands and information about them.
Compare files.
Utility used to create partitions on the hard disk drive.
Search for text within a file.
Searches for a string of text within a file.
Writes a new boot sector.
Writes a new boot record to a disk drive.
Boolean used in batch files.
Command to erase and prepare a disk drive.
Command to connect and operate on a FTP server.
Displays or modifies file types used in file extension associations.
Moves a batch file to a specific label or location.
Show extended characters in graphics mode.
Display a listing of commands and brief explanation.
Allows for batch files to perform conditional processing.
32-bit file manager.
Network command to view network adapter settings and assigned values.
Change layout of keyboard.
Change the label of a disk drive.
Load a device driver in to high memory.
Recovery console command that displays the services and drivers.
Load a program above the first 64k.
Load a device driver in to high memory.
Lock the hard disk drive.
Recovery console command to list installations and enable administrator login.
Displays the device name of a drive.
Command to create a new directory.
Display memory on system.
Command to create a new directory.
Modify the port or display settings.
Display one page at a time.
Move one or more files from one directory to another directory.
Early Microsoft Virus scanner.
Diagnostics utility.
Utility used to load and provide access to the CD-ROM.
Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NBT
Update, fix, or view the network or network settings
Configure dynamic and static network information from MS-DOS.
Display the TCP/IP network protocol statistics and information.
Load country specific information.
Look up an IP address of a domain or host on a network.
View and modify the computers path location.
View and locate locations of network latency.
Command used in batch files to stop the processing of a command.
Test / send information to another network computer or network device.
Changes to the directory or network path stored by the pushd command.
Conserve power with computer portables.
Prints data to a printer port.
View and change the MS-DOS prompt.
Stores a directory or network path in memory so it can be returned to at any time.
Open the QBasic.
Removes an empty directory.
Renames a file or directory.
Renames a file or directory.
Removes an empty directory.
View and configure windows network route tables.
Enables a user to execute a program on another computer.
Run the scandisk utility.
Scan registry and recover registry from errors.
Change one variable or string to another.
Enables local environments to be changed without affecting anything else.
Change MS-DOS version to trick older MS-DOS programs.
Installs support for file sharing and locking capabilities.
Changes the position of replaceable parameters in a batch program.
Shutdown the computer from the MS-DOS prompt.
Create a disk cache in conventional memory or extended memory.
Sorts the input and displays the output to the screen.
Start a separate window in Windows from the MS-DOS prompt.
Substitute a folder on your computer for another drive letter.
Remove add functions from MS-DOS.
Transfer system files to disk drive.
Telnet to another computer / device from the prompt.
View or modify the system time.
Change the title of their MS-DOS window.
Visually view a network packets route across a network.
View a visual tree of the hard disk drive.
Display the contents of a file.
Undelete a file that has been deleted.
Unformat a hard disk drive.
Unlock a disk drive.
Display the version information.
Enables or disables the feature to determine if files have been written properly.
Displays the volume information about the designated drive.
Copy multiple files, directories, and/or drives from one location to another.

Change Drive Letters in Windows

When you add drives to your computer, such as an extra hard drive, a CD drive, or a

storage device that corresponds to a drive, Windows automatically assigns letters to the

drives. However, this assignment might not suit your system; for example, you might have

mapped a network drive to the same letter that Windows assigns to a new drive.

· Right-click My Computer, and then click Manage.

· Under Computer Management, click Disk Management. In the right pane, you’ll see your

drives listed. CD-ROM drives are listed at the bottom of the pane.

· Right-click the drive or device you want to change, and then click Change Drive

Letter and Paths.

· Click Change, click Assign the following drive letter, click the drive letter you

want to assign, and then click OK.

You will not be able to change the boot or system drive letter in this manner. Many

MS-DOS-based and Windows-based programs make references to a specific drive letter (for

example, environment variables). If you modify the drive letter, these programs may not

function correctly.

Bit Torrent Tutorials

Posted: August 17, 2009 in Internet, System Information

Bit Torrent Tutorials

The first things you need to know about using Bit Torrent:

— Bit Torrent is aimed at broadband users (or any connection better than dialup).

— Sharing is highly appreciated, and sharing is what keeps bit torrent alive.

— A bit torrent file (*.torrent) contains information about the piece structure of the download (more on this later)

— The method of downloading is not your conventional type of download. Since downloads do not come in as one

big chunk, you are able to download from many people at once, increasing your download speeds. There may be

100 “pieces” to a file, or 20,000+ pieces, all depending on what you’re downloading. Pieces are usually small (under 200kb)

— The speeds are based upon people sharing as they download, and seeders. Seeders are people who constantly

share in order to keep torrents alive. Usually seeders are on fast connections (10mb or higher).

In this tutorial, I will be describing it all using a bit torrent client called Azureus. This client is used to decode the .torrent files into a useable format to download from other peers. From here on out, I will refer to Bit Torrent as BT.

Which BT client you use, is purely up to you. I have tried them all, and my personal favorite is Azureus for many reasons. A big problem with most BT clients out there, is that they are extremely CPU intensive, usually using 100% of your cpu power during the whole process. This is the number one reason I use Azureus. Another, is a recently released plug-in that enables you to browse all current files listed on (the #1 source for torrent downloads).

Before you use the plug-in, take a look at /, and browse the files. Hold your mouse over the links, and you’ll notice every file ends in .torrent. This is the BT file extension. Usually, .torrent files are very small, under 200kb. They contain a wealth of information about the file you want to download. A .torrent file can contain just 1 single file, or a a directory full of files and more directories. But regardless, every download is split up into hundreds or thousands of pieces. The pieces make it much easier to download at higher speeds. Back to Look at the columns:

Added | Name | Filesize | Seeds | DLs (and a few more which aren’t very useful.)

I’ll break this down.

Added: Self explanitory, its the date the torrent was added.

Name: Also self explanitory.

Filesize: Duh

Seeds: This is how many people are strictly UPLOADING, or sharing. These people are the ones that keep .torrent files alive. By “alive”, I mean, if there’s no one sharing the .torrent file, no one can download.

DLs: This is how many people currently downloading that particular torrent. They also help keep the torrent alive as they share while they download.

It’s always best to download using a torrent that has a decent amount of seeders and downloaders, this way you can be assured there’s a good chance your download will finish. The more the better.

Now that you should understand how torrent files work, and how to use them, on to Azureus!

First, get JAVA! You need this to run Azureus, as java is what powers it. Get Java here: /

Next, get Azureus at: /

Next, get the Suprnovalister plugin from /

Install Java JRE before you do ANYTHING.

Install Azureus, and then in the installation folder, create 2 more folders. ./Plugins/suprnovalister (For example, if you installed Azureus to C:\PROGRAM FILES\AZUREUS, create C:\PROGRAM FILES\AZUREUS\PLUGINS\SUPRNOVALISTER). Next, put the suprnovalister.jar file that you downloaded, in that folder.

Load up Azureus, and if you want, go through the settings and personalize it.

The tab labeled “My Torrents” is the section of Azureus you need the most often. That lists all your transfers, uploads and downloads. It shows every bit of information you could possibly want to know about torrents you download.

In the menu bar, go to View > Plugins > Suprnova Lister. This will open up a new tab in Azureus. Click on “Update Mirror”. This will get a mirror site of containing all current torrent files available. Once a mirror is grabbed, choose a category from the drop-down box to the left and click “Update”. Wah-lah, all the available downloads appear in the main chart above. Just double click a download you want, and bang its starting to download. Open the “My Torrents” tab again to view and make sure your download started.

After your download has finished, be nice, and leave the torrent transferring. So people can get pieces of the file from you, just as you got pieces from other people.

Alternatively, if you don’t want to use the plugin… you can just head to and download files to any folder. Then go to File > Open > .torrent File in Azureus.

This should about wrap it up for the Bit Torrent Tutorial. If you guys think of anything I should add, or whatnot, just let me know and I’ll check into it.

Virus On Facebook.

Posted: August 17, 2009 in Internet

Virus On Facebook.

A worm, Koobface, that hit Facebook last December is again active with a fresh appeal.

The virus has not only targeted Facebook but also,,,,, MySpace,, and

The latest version of Koobface arrives as an invitation from a user’s friend, inviting the recipient to click on a link and view a video at a counterfeit YouTube website, with fake comments. Visitors are told they need to install an Adobe Flash plug-in to view the video.

What an art is that the malicious landing page pulls the photo from the Facebook profile of the inviter, according to Trend Micro blog.

Clicking the Install button installs the new Koobface variant detected as WORM_KOOBFACE.AZ.

In addition, the worm propagates through othersocial networking sites as well. It hijacks the victim’s account and sends additional invites to his contacts.

Users of the Trend Micro Smart Protection Network are protected from this threat, as per Trend Microreporting.

So, be cautious while using such social networking sites. If possible, use the vendor’s site for downloading anything. Also, you can use any online antivirus.